Alternative Carbonless Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines of Vehicles

  • Gintautas BureikaEmail author
  • Jonas Matijošius
  • Alfredas Rimkus
Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS, volume 124)


The problematics of decarbonisation in road transport sector is considered in this chapter. The impact of growing motor vehicle fleet on pollutant by carbon dioxide (CO2) gases of atmosphere is analysed. The detail analysis of purposeful restriction of permissible level of comparative amount CO2 in car exhaust gases in EU to control the total CO2 emission in road transport sector is presented. The urgent demand to use carbonless fuel additives to stop the growth of total amount of CO2 emission during vehicle traction transient process “from heat power to electric power” is clarified. The introduction of electric cars by itself does not solve the problem of decarbonisation, since it is necessary to assess how electricity is produced, whether from renewable sources or by burning fossil fuel. The objective reasons for the delay in the widespread implementation of electric vehicles are investigated: the distance of one battery charge dissatisfied with drivers, an underdeveloped network of battery recharging stations, problems with the capacity and overloads of state-run electric networks, aspects of determination of time for recharging private cars, and insufficient government support measures. The main characteristics of the integrity of biofuel production and use and the continuous biofuel supply chain are described. Direct and indirect the 4th generation biofuel production processes, photo-fermentation and gaseous reversible reaction for hydrogen production are described. Using of hydrogen as carbonless fuel for internal combustion engines (ICE) slightly improves the burning processes of ICE combustible mixture and this decreases on ICE emission harmfulness. The undisputed advantages of hydrogen as ICE fuel additive encourages the development of hydrogen re-fulling infrastructure. Gained results of performed stand tests to define the efficiency of ICE and exhaust gases toxicity using Brown’s gas (HHO) are described. Finally, basic conclusions are given.


Transport sector Internal combustion engines Greenhouse effect CO2 emissions Carbonless fuel Biofuels Electro mobility Brown’s gas (HHO) 


  1. 1.
    World Energy Investment (2017) Executive summary.
  2. 2.
    Mock P (2014) European vehicle market statistics, PocketbookGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Korakianitis T, Namasivayam AM, Crookes RJ (2011) Natural-gas fueled spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine performance and emissions. Prog Energy Combust Sci 37:89–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wasiu AB, Aziz ARA, Heikal MR (2012) The effect of carbon dioxide content-natural gas on the performance characteristics of engines: a review. J Appl Sci 12:2346–2350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Springer International Publishing (2016) North sea region climate change assessment.
  6. 6.
    Decarbonisation of Transport (2019) EASAC—science advice for the benefit of Europe.
  7. 7.
    European Environment Agency (2019) Adaptation of transport to climate change in Europe.
  8. 8.
    European Environment Agency (2016) Trends and projections in Europe 2016—tracking progress towards Europe’s climate and energy targets.
  9. 9.
    European Environment Agency (2019) National emissions reported to the UNFCCC and to the EU greenhouse gas monitoring mechanism.
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    EUR-Lex—L:2014:307:TOC—EN—EUR-Lex (2019).
  12. 12.
    Communication from the commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions (2011).
  13. 13.
    Selech J, Joachimiak-Lechman K, Klos Z, Kulczycka J, Kurczewski P (2014) Life cycle thinking in small and medium enterprises: the results of research on the implementation of life cycle tools in polish SMEs—part 3: LCC-related aspects. Int J Life Cycle Assess 19:1119–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Union, P. O. of the E. EU transport in figures: statistical pocketbook (2018).
  15. 15.
    Maghrour Zefreh M, Torok A (2018) Single loop detector data validation and imputation of missing data. Measurement 116:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ecological Transport Information Tool for Worldwide Transports (2014).
  17. 17.
    Zoldy M, Hollo A, Thernesz A (2010) Butanol as a diesel extender option for internal combustion engines. SAE technical paper 2010-01-0481.
  18. 18.
    Bielaczyc P, Woodburn J, Szczotka A (2014) An assessment of regulated emissions and CO2 emissions from a European light-duty CNG-fueled vehicle in the context of Euro 6 emissions regulations. Appl Energy 117:134–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Melaika M (2016) Research of a combustion process in a spark ignition engine, fuelled with gaseous fuel mixtures. Vilnius Gediminas Technical UniversityGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rakopoulos CD, Kosmadakis GM, Pariotis EG (2010) Evaluation of a combustion model for the simulation of hydrogen spark-ignition engines using a CFD code. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:12545–12560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ma F et al (2010) Performance and emission characteristics of a turbocharged spark-ignition hydrogen-enriched compressed natural gas engine under wide open throttle operating conditions. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:12502–12509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karim G (2003) Hydrogen as a spark ignition engine fuel. Int J Hydrogen Energy 28:569–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Juknelevičius R (2019) Research on biodiesel and hydrogen co-combustion process in compression ignition engine. VGTU leidykla “Technika”Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Communication from the commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions (2013) Clean power for transport: a European alternative fuels strategy.
  25. 25.
    Electromobility in Sweden: facilitating market conditions to encourage consumer uptake of electric vehicles (2019).
  26. 26.
    Alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies for improved environmental performance: towards zero carbon transportation (2014) Woodhead PublGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hymel K (2019) If you build it, they will drive: measuring induced demand for vehicle travel in urban areas. Transp Policy 76:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lin B, Wu W (2018) Why people want to buy electric vehicle: An empirical study in first-tier cities of China. Energy Policy 112:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jeong E, Oh C, Lee S (2017) Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety. Accid Anal Prev 104:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Khan M, Machemehl R (2017) Commercial vehicles time of day choice behavior in urban areas. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract 102:68–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Electric vehicles. Mobility and Transport—European Commission (2016).
  32. 32.
    Benajes J, García A, Monsalve-Serrano J, Martínez-Boggio S (2019) Optimization of the parallel and mild hybrid vehicle platforms operating under conventional and advanced combustion modes. Energy Convers Manag 190:73–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dorcec L, Pevec D, Vdovic H, Babic J, Podobnik V (2019) How do people value electric vehicle charging service? A gamified survey approach. J Clean Prod 210:887–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Çağatay Bayindir K, Gözüküçük M, Teke A (2011) A comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicle: powertrain configurations, powertrain control techniques and electronic control units. Energy Convers Manag 52:1305–1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Figenbaum E (2017) Perspectives on Norway’s supercharged electric vehicle policy. Environ Innov Soc Trans 25:14–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hardman S, Chandan A, Tal G, Turrentine T (2017) The effectiveness of financial purchase incentives for battery electric vehicles—a review of the evidence. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 80:1100–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Johansson P, Nilsson J-E (2004) An economic analysis of track maintenance costs. Transp Policy 11:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Arias MB, Kim M, Bae S (2017) Prediction of electric vehicle charging-power demand in realistic urban traffic networks. Appl Energy 195:738–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dubey A (2012) Impact of electric vehicle loads on utility distribution network voltages. UT Electronic theses and dissertationsGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang Q, Liu X, Du J, Kong F (2016) Smart charging for electric vehicles: a survey from the algorithmic perspective. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 18:1500–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
    Langbroek JHM, Franklin JP, Susilo YO (2017) When do you charge your electric vehicle? A stated adaptation approach. Energy Policy 108:565–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Huang K, Kanaroglou P, Zhang X (2016) The design of electric vehicle charging network. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ 49:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the sound level of motor vehicles (2011).
  45. 45.
    Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure. Text with EEA relevanceGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
    Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. 47Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Deb M, Debbarma B, Majumder A, Banerjee R (2016) Performance—emission optimization of a diesel-hydrogen dual fuel operation: a NSGA II coupled TOPSIS MADM approach. Energy 117:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lengvųjų variklinių transporto priemonių taršos mažinimas (2018). (In Lithuanian: Reduction of pollution from light motor vehicles)
  50. 50.
    Kniūkšta B (2017) Biodegalų gamybos ir vartojimo modeliai baltijos šalyse. Manage Theory Stud Rural Bus Infrastruct Develop 39(2):178–202 (In Lithuanian: Biofuel production and consumption patterns in the Baltic countries)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Alternative fuels for transportation (2011) CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Alalwan HA, Alminshid AH, Aljaafari HAS (2019) Promising evolution of biofuel generations. Subject review. Renew Energy Focus 28:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Abdullah B et al (2019) Fourth generation biofuel: a review on risks and mitigation strategies. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 107:37–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    de Sá LRV, de Oliveira Faber M, da Silva AS, Cammarota MC, Ferreira-Leitão VS (2020) Biohydrogen production using xylose or xylooligosaccharides derived from sugarcane bagasse obtained by hydrothermal and acid pretreatments. Renew Energy 146:2408–2415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Leong W-H, Lim J-W, Lam M-K, Uemura Y, Ho Y-C (2018) Third generation biofuels: a nutritional perspective in enhancing microbial lipid production. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 91:950–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Keskin T, Abubackar HN, Yazgin O, Gunay B, Azbar N (2019) Effect of percolation frequency on biohydrogen production from fruit and vegetable wastes by dry fermentation. Int J Hydrogen Energy 44:18767–18775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Panchuk M, Kryshtopa S, Sładkowski A, Kryshtopa L, Klochko N, Romanyshyn T, Panchuk A, Mandryk I (2019) Efficiency of production of motor biofuels for water and land transport. Naše more 66(3 Supplement):4–10Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mirza SS, Qazi JI, Liang Y, Chen S (2019) Growth characteristics and photofermentative biohydrogen production potential of purple non sulfur bacteria from sugar cane bagasse. Fuel 255(115805):1–13Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sinharoy A, Pakshirajan K (2020) A novel application of biologically synthesized nanoparticles for enhanced biohydrogen production and carbon monoxide bioconversion. Renew Energy 147:864–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Srivastava N et al (2019) Nanoengineered cellulosic biohydrogen production via dark fermentation: a novel approach. Biotechnol Adv 37(107384):1–13Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Veeramalini JB, Selvakumari IAE, Park S, Jayamuthunagai J, Bharathiraja B (2019) Continuous production of biohydrogen from brewery effluent using co-culture of mutated Rhodobacter M 19 and Enterobacter aerogenes. Biores Technol 286(121402):1–6Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ziolkowska JR (2020) Chapter 1—biofuels technologies: an overview of feedstocks, processes, and technologies. In: Ren J, Scipioni A, Manzardo A, Liang H (eds) Biofuels for a more sustainable future. Elsevier, pp 1–19.
  63. 63.
    Acar C, Dincer I (2019) Review and evaluation of hydrogen production options for better environment. J Clean Prod 218:835–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Williams LO (1980) Hydrogen power: an introduction to hydrogen energy and its applications. Pergamon PressGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gao Y, Jiang J, Meng Y, Yan F, Aihemaiti A (2018) A review of recent developments in hydrogen production via biogas dry reforming. Energy Convers Manag 171:133–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hydrogen and other alternative fuels for air and ground transportation (1995) WileyGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dimitriou P, Tsujimura T, Suzuki Y (2019) Low-load hydrogen-diesel dual-fuel engine operation—a combustion efficiency improvement approach. Int J Hydrogen Energy 44:17048–17060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Miyamoto T et al (2011) Effect of hydrogen addition to intake gas on combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a diesel engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy 36:13138–13149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Talibi M, Hellier P, Ladommatos N (2017) Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics, and in-cylinder gas composition, of hydrogen enriched biogas mixtures in a diesel engine. Energy 124:397–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Marreroalfonso E, Gray J, Davis T, Matthews M (2007) Hydrolysis of sodium borohydride with steam. Int J Hydrogen Energy 32:4717–4722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Khaselev O (1998) A monolithic photovoltaic-photoelectrochemical device for hydrogen production via water splitting. Science 280:425–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Parra D, Valverde L, Pino FJ, Patel MK (2019) A review on the role, cost and value of hydrogen energy systems for deep decarbonisation. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 101:279–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Advances in hydrogen energy (2000) Kluwer Academic/Plenum PublishersGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pandey B, Prajapati YK, Sheth PN (2019) Recent progress in thermochemical techniques to produce hydrogen gas from biomass: a state of the art review. Int J Hydrogen Energy 44:25384–25415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Li J, Huang H, Kobayashi N, Wang C, Yuan H (2017) Numerical study on laminar burning velocity and ignition delay time of ammonia flame with hydrogen addition. Energy. 126:796–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Santilli R (2006) A new gaseous and combustible form of water. Int J Hydrogen Energy 31:1113–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Yilmaz AC, Uludamar E, Aydin K (2010) Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:11366–11372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Escalante Soberanis MA, Fernandez AM (2010) A review on the technical adaptations for internal combustion engines to operate with gas/hydrogen mixtures. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:12134–12140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hydrogen fuel: production, transport, and storage (2009) CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Handbook of diesel engines (2010) SpringerGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Surygała J (2008) Wodór jako paliwo. Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Techniczne (In Polish: Hydrogen as a fuel)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Verma S, Das LM, Kaushik SC, Tyagi SK (2018) An experimental investigation of exergetic performance and emission characteristics of hydrogen supplemented biogas-diesel dual fuel engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy 43:2452–2468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kahraman E, Cihangir Ozcanlı S, Ozerdem B (2007) An experimental study on performance and emission characteristics of a hydrogen fuelled spark ignition engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy 32:2066–2072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chen K, Karim GA, Watson HC (2001) Experimental and analytical examination of the development of inhomogeneities and autoignition during rapid compression of hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures. J Eng Gas Turbines Power 125:458–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Verhelst S, Maesschalck P, Rombaut N, Sierens R (2009) Increasing the power output of hydrogen internal combustion engines by means of supercharging and exhaust gas recirculation. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34:4406–4412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    White C, Steeper R, Lutz A (2006) The hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine: a technical review. Int J Hydrogen Energy 31:1292–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hari Ganesh R et al (2008) Hydrogen fueled spark ignition engine with electronically controlled manifold injection: an experimental study. Renew Energy 33:1324–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dandrea T (2004) The addition of hydrogen to a gasoline-fuelled SI engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy 29:1541–1552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yan F, Xu L, Wang Y (2018) Application of hydrogen enriched natural gas in spark ignition IC engines: from fundamental fuel properties to engine performances and emissions. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 82:1457–1488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dimopoulos P, Rechsteiner C, Soltic P, Laemmle C, Boulouchos K (2007) Increase of passenger car engine efficiency with low engine-out emissions using hydrogen–natural gas mixtures: a thermodynamic analysis. Int J Hydrogen Energy 32:3073–3083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zhao H (ed) (2010) Advanced direct injection combustion engine technologies and development: gasoline and gas engines. Woodhead PublishingGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Aziz AAR, Firmansyah F (2009) The effect of fuel rail pressure on the performance of a CNG-direct injection engine. SAE Techn Pap. Scholar
  93. 93.
    Baratta M, Rapetto N (2015) Mixture formation analysis in a direct-injection NG SI engine under different injection timings. Fuel 159:675–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Di Iorio S, Sementa P, Vaglieco BM, Catapano F (2014) An experimental investigation on combustion and engine performance and emissions of a methane-gasoline dual-fuel optical engine. SAE Techn Pap. Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stojkovic BD, Fansler TD, Drake MC, Sick V (2005) High-speed imaging of OH* and soot temperature and concentration in a stratified-charge direct-injection gasoline engine. Proc Combust Inst 30:2657–2665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ji C, Wang S (2009) Effect of hydrogen addition on combustion and emissions performance of a spark ignition gasoline engine at lean conditions. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34:7823–7834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ji C, Liu X, Gao B, Wang S, Yang J (2013) Numerical investigation on the combustion process in a spark-ignited engine fueled with hydrogen–gasoline blends. Int J Hydrogen Energy 38:11149–11155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Köse H, Ciniviz M (2013) An experimental investigation of effect on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions of addition at dual fuel mode of hydrogen. Fuel Process Technol 114:26–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Dhanasekaran C, Kalaiselvan K (2007) Experimental investigation of hydrogen port fuel injection in DI diesel engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy 32:4071–4080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Homan H, Reynolds R, Deboer P, Mclean W (1979) Hydrogen-fueled diesel engine without timed ignition. Int J Hydrogen Energy 4:315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nguyen TA, Mikami M (2013) Effect of hydrogen addition to intake air on combustion noise from a diesel engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy 38:4153–4162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Szwaja S, Grab-Rogalinski K (2009) Hydrogen combustion in a compression ignition diesel engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34:4413–4421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Saravanan N, Nagarajan G (2008) An experimental investigation of hydrogen-enriched air induction in a diesel engine system. Int J Hydrogen Energy 33:1769–1775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Alrazen HA, Abu Talib AR, Adnan R, Ahmad KA A review of the effect of hydrogen addition on the performance and emissions of the compression—ignition engine. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 54:785–796Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tripathi G, Sharma P, Dhar A, Sadiki A (2019) Computational investigation of diesel injection strategies in hydrogen-diesel dual fuel engine. Sustain Energy Technol Assess 36(100543):1–10Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Yang B, Wei X, Zeng K, Lai M-C (2014) The development of an electronic control unit for a high pressure common rail diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine. SAE Tech Pap 2014-01-1168.
  107. 107.
    Green car congress (2009) High-pressure direct-injection hydrogen engine achieves efficiency of 42%; on par with turbodiesels.
  108. 108.
    Yanxing Z, Maoqiong G, Yuan Z, Xueqiang D, Jun S (2019) Thermodynamics analysis of hydrogen storage based on compressed gaseous hydrogen, liquid hydrogen and cryo-compressed hydrogen. Int J Hydrogen Energy 44:16833–16840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rimkus A (2013) Vidaus degimo variklio darbo efektyvumo didinimas panaudojant Brauno dujas. Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (In Lithuanian: Improvement of efficiency of operation of an internal combustion engine by using Brown’s gas)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    US Patent # 4,081,656 issued March 28, 1978. Arc-assisted oxy/hydrogen welding.
  111. 111.
    US Patent # 4,014,777 issued March 29, 1977. Welding.
  112. 112.
    Baltacioglu MK, Arat HT, Özcanli M, Aydin K (2016) Experimental comparison of pure hydrogen and HHO (hydroxy) enriched biodiesel (B10) fuel in a commercial diesel engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy 41:8347–8353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ismail TM et al (2018) Performance of hybrid compression ignition engine using hydroxy (HHO) from dry cell. Energy Convers Manag 155:287–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Subramanian B, Ismail S (2018) Production and use of HHO gas in IC engines. Int J Hydrogen Energy 43:7140–7154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Uludamar E (2018) Effect of hydroxy and hydrogen gas addition on diesel engine fuelled with microalgae biodiesel. Int J Hydrogen Energy 43:18028–18036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Yilmaz IT, Gumus M (2018) Effects of hydrogen addition to the intake air on performance and emissions of common rail diesel engine. Energy 142:1104–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Srinivasan S, Salzano F (1977) Prospects for hydrogen production by water electrolysis to be competitive with conventional methods. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Polverino P, D’Aniello F, Arsie I, Pianese C (2019) Study of the energetic needs for the on-board production of oxy-hydrogen as fuel additive in internal combustion engines. Energy Convers Manag 179:114–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
  120. 120.
    Rimkus A, Pukalskas S, Matijošius J, Sokolovskij E (2013) Betterment of ecological parameters of a diesel engine using Brown‘s gas. J Environ Eng Landscape Manag 21:133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Selim M (2005) Effect of engine parameters and gaseous fuel type on the cyclic variability of dual fuel engines. Fuel 84:961–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wang J, Chen H, Liu B, Huang Z (2008) Study of cycle-by-cycle variations of a spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends. Int J Hydrogen Energy 33:4876–4883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rodrigues Filho FA et al (2016) E25 stratified torch ignition engine performance, CO2 emission and combustion analysis. Energy Convers Manag 115:299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gintautas Bureika
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jonas Matijošius
    • 2
  • Alfredas Rimkus
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Transport Engineering, Department of Mobile Machinery and Railway TransportVilnius Gediminas Technical UniversityVilniusLithuania
  2. 2.Faculty of Transport Engineering, Department of Automobile EngineeringVilnius Gediminas Technical UniversityVilniusLithuania

Personalised recommendations