Complex Numbers

  • John VinceEmail author


In this chapter I review complex numbers. The complex plane is described as a way of visualising complex numbers and various algebraic operations, and two functions for isolating the real and imaginary parts of a complex expression. The section on Complex Algebra examines topics such as the complex conjugate, powers of i, complex exponentials, logarithms of a complex number, and the hyperbolic functions. Finally, there are a dozen worked examples.


  1. Feynman RP (1977) The Feynman lectures on physics, vol 1. Addison-Wesley, Reading, p 22-10Google Scholar
  2. Vince J (2018) Imaginary mathematics for computer science. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 978-3-319-94636-8Google Scholar

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bournemouth UniversityBreinton, HerefordUK

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