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Poisoning in Warfare

  • Michael FarrellEmail author
Chapter
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Abstract

Firstly, this chapter briefly defines warfare. It touches on chemical weapons, efforts to protect against them, and attempts to curtail their use. Historically, it looks at chemical weapons used in the First World War, the 1935–1936 Italo-Ethiopian War, and the Sino-Japanese War in 1943. The chapter examines more recent chemical attacks in Syria and Iraq. In Syria, these concerned Khan Sheikhoun in 2017, Khanal-Assal in 2013, and Ghouta also in 2013. Regarding Northern Iraq, the focus is the 1988 attack on the Kurdish city of Halabjain. These confrontations are each examined in relation to Situational Crime Prevention and means, motive, opportunity, location, and perpetrator–victim relationships.

Keywords

Warfare Chemical weapons Khan Sheikhoun Khanal-Assal Ghouta Halabja 

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stoke Lacy, HerefordshireUK

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