Multi-level Governance of Climate Change Adaptation: A Case Study of Country-Wide Adaptation Projects in Samoa
- 33 Downloads
Countries across the Pacific region have experienced a surge in internationally funding for climate adaptation initiatives. In the Independent State of Samoa, two major projects—funded by the Adaptation Fund and the World Bank Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR)—have supported adaptation planning and activity implementation in most villages across the country. These country-wide initiatives range from conducting LiDAR studies and updating Community Integrated Management (CIM) plans to installing rainwater catchment and storage tanks and reforesting water catchment areas. These projects inherently present a multi-level governance challenge because they are developed at the national level, are funded and monitored at the international level, and ultimately implemented in communities. This chapter explores the extent to which interactions across governance levels and scales advance effective adaptation to climate change. Based on in-country interviews, site observations, and observations of the Adaptation Fund’s terminal evaluation process, this chapter presents evidence from these major adaptation initiatives in Samoa to highlight where multi-level governance had been leveraged to enhance the governance of adaptation as well as areas of the projects where this has not occurred. It further examines the trade-offs inherent in efforts to work across governance scales and levels in conducting climate change adaptation.
KeywordsMulti-level governance Climate change adaptation Samoa Climate finance
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144205. Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. This research is also supported by Dan and Betty Churchill Exploration Fund, the Richardson-Churchill SPIA Scholarship, and the University of Maine Graduate Student Government.
The authors are also grateful for the support of Dr. Cindy Isenhour for her guidance throughout the research process. The project would not have been possible without the participation and engagement from the interviewees and their colleagues who welcomed us into the climate adaptation project processes.
- Abrams MH (1999) A glossary of literary terms, 7th edn. Heinle & Heinle, Thomson Learning, BostonGoogle Scholar
- Adams WM (2009) Green development: environment and sustainability in a developing world. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Cole DH (2011) From global to polycentric climate governance. European University Institute: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Global Governance Programme. Working paperGoogle Scholar
- Creswell JW (2013) Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five approaches. Sage, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
- Gee JP (2004) Discourse analysis: what makes it critical? In: Rogers R (ed) An introduction to critical discourse analysis in education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, MahwahGoogle Scholar
- Hoegh-Guldberg O, Jacob D, Taylor M, Bindi M, Brown S, Camilloni I, Diedhiou A, Djalante R, Ebi KL, Engelbrecht F, Guiot J, Hijioka Y, Mehrotra S, Payne A, Seneviratne SI, Thomas A, Warren R, Zhou G (2018) Impacts of 1.5 °C global warming on natural and human systems. In: Masson-Delmotte V, Zhai P, Pörtner H-O, Roberts D, Skea J, Shukla PR, Pirani A, Moufouma-Okia W, Péan C, Pidcock R, Connors S, Matthews JBR, Chen Y, Zhou X, Gomis MI, Lonnoy E, Maycock T, Tignor M, Waterfield T (eds) Global Warming of 1.5 °C. An IPCC Special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Hooghe L, Marks G (2001) Types of multi-level governance. Europ Integr Online Pap 5(11):1–32Google Scholar
- Macpherson C, Macpherson L (2009) The warm winds of change: globalization in contemporary Samoa. Auckland University Press, AucklandGoogle Scholar
- Meleisea M, Meleisea SP, Meleisea E (2012) Samoa’s journey 1962–2012: aspects of history. Victoria University Press, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
- MNRE, Australia Bureau of Meteorology, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (2011) Pacific climate change science program: current and future climate of Samoa. International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative. Available online at https://tinyurl.com/y4kgocb2. Last access 23 June 2019
- Rogers R (ed) (2004) An introduction to critical discourse analysis in education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
- UNFCCC (2018) UNFCCC Standing Committee on Finance 2018. Biennial assessment and overview of climate finance flows technical report. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Available online at https://tinyurl.com/y2h5yc8c. Last accessed 22 June 2019
- Yin RK (2014) Case study research: design and methods. Sage, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar