Superparamagnetic Composite-Based GO/rGO for the Multimode Biomedical Applications

  • Hafeez AnwarEmail author
  • Iram Arif
  • Huma Mushtaq
Part of the Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology book series (NANOMED)


Graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide (GO/rGO)-based nanomaterials are fast emerging materials due to their unique structure and excellent mechanical, optical and electrical properties that can exploit for many important applications. In the present chapter, we will highlight the different types and physical properties of superparamagnetic composite-based GO/rGO, especially for various biomedical applications.


Superparamagnetic nanocomposites Go/rGo-based materials Magnetic resonance imaging Drug delivery Gene therapy 



H. Anwar is grateful to the Pakistan Science Foundation for funding under the project PSF-NSF/Eng/P-UAF (05).


  1. Ahmad H, Fan M, Hui D (2018) Graphene oxide incorporated functional materials: a review. Compos B Eng 145:270–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aoyama Y, Kobayashi K, Morishita Y, Maeda K, Murohara T (2015) Wnt11 gene therapy with adeno-associated virus 9 improves the survival of mice with myocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3 through the suppression of the inflammatory reaction. J Mol Cell Cardiol 84:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bao H, Pan Y, Ping Y, Sahoo NG, Wu T, Li L, Li J, Gan LH (2011) Chitosan-functionalized graphene oxide as a nanocarrier for drug and gene delivery. Small 7:1569–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benitez M, Mishra D, Szary P, Confalonieri GB, Feyen M, Lu A, Agudo L, Eggeler G, Petracic O, Zabel H (2011) Structural and magnetic characterization of self-assembled iron oxide nanoparticle arrays. J Phys: Condens Matter 23:126003Google Scholar
  5. Briscoe J, Dunn S (2016) The future of using Earth-abundant elements in counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Adv Mater 28:3802–3813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen W, Yi P, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Deng Z, Zhang Z (2011) Composites of aminodextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene oxide for cellular magnetic resonance imaging. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:4085–4091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheon YA, Bae JH, Chung BG (2016) Reduced graphene oxide nanosheet for chemo-photothermal therapy. Langmuir 32:2731–2736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. El-Sayed IH, Huang X, El-Sayed MA (2006) Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles. Cancer Lett 239:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Enriquez-Navas PM, Garcia-Martin ML (2012) Application of inorganic nanoparticles for diagnosis based on MRI. Frontiers of nanoscience. Elsevier, pp 233–245Google Scholar
  10. Falcao EH, Wudl F (2007) Carbon allotropes: beyond graphite and diamond. J Chem Technol Biotechnol: Int Res Process, Environ Clean Technol 82:524–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gerstner E (2010) Nobel prize 2010: Andre geim and konstantin novoselov. Nat Phys 6:836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghazanfari MR, Kashefi M, Shams SF, Jaafari MR (2016) Perspective of Fe3O4 nanoparticles role in biomedical applications. Biochem Res Int 2016:7840161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glannon W (2018) Genes and future people: Philosophical issues in human genetics. RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  14. Gonzalez-Rodriguez R, Campbell E, Naumov A (2019) Multifunctional graphene oxide/iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic targeted drug delivery dual magnetic resonance/fluorescence imaging and cancer sensing. PLoS ONE 14:e0217072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hong CH, Kim MW, Zhang WL, Moon IJ, Choi HJ (2016) Fabrication of smart magnetite/reduced graphene oxide composite nanoparticles and their magnetic stimuli-response. J Colloid Interface Sci 481:194–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu H, Yu J, Li Y, Zhao J, Dong H (2012) Engineering of a novel pluronic F127/graphene nanohybrid for pH responsive drug delivery. J Biomed Mater Res, Part A 100:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jeong H-K, Lee YP, Lahaye RJ, Park M-H, An KH, Kim IJ, Yang C-W, Park CY, Ruoff RS, Lee YH (2008) Evidence of graphitic AB stacking order of graphite oxides. J Am Chem Soc 130:1362–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Justin R, Tao K, Román S, Chen D, Xu Y, Geng X, Ross IM, Grant RT, Pearson A, Zhou G, Macneil S, Sun K, Chen B (2016) Photoluminescent and superparamagnetic reduced graphene oxide–iron oxide quantum dots for dual-modality imaging, drug delivery and photothermal therapy. Carbon 97:54–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Katsnelson MI (2007) Graphene: carbon in two dimensions. Mater Today 10:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kim H, Lee D (2018) Near-infrared-responsive cancer photothermal and photodynamic therapy using gold nanoparticles. Polymers 10:961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lu W, Singh AK, Khan SA, Senapati D, Yu H, Ray PC (2010) Gold nano-popcorn-based targeted diagnosis, nanotherapy treatment, and in situ monitoring of photothermal therapy response of prostate cancer cells using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. J Am Chem Soc 132:18103–18114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ma X, Tao H, Yang K, Feng L, Cheng L, Shi X, Li Y, Guo L, Liu Z (2012) A functionalized graphene oxide-iron oxide nanocomposite for magnetically targeted drug delivery, photothermal therapy, and magnetic resonance imaging. Nano Res 5:199–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ma Y, Yan F, Liu L, Wei W, Zhao Z, Sun J (2019) The enhanced photo-thermal therapy of Surface improved photoactive cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots entrenched graphene oxide nanoflakes in tumor treatment. J Photochem Photobiol, B 192:34–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Marghussian V (2015) 4—Magnetic properties of nano-glass ceramics. In: Marghussian V (ed) Nano-glass ceramics. William Andrew Publishing, Oxford, pp 181–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mccallion C, Burthem J, Rees-Unwin K, Golovanov A, Pluen A (2016) Graphene in therapeutics delivery: problems, solutions and future opportunities. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 104:235–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Muhammad S, Xu H-L, Zhong R-L, Su Z-M, Al-Sehemi AG, Irfan A (2013) Quantum chemical design of nonlinear optical materials by sp 2-hybridized carbon nanomaterials: issues and opportunities. J Mater Chem C 1:5439–5449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Paradise M, Goswami T (2007) Carbon nanotubes–production and industrial applications. Mater Des 28:1477–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Paulchamy B, Arthi G, Lignesh B (2015) A simple approach to stepwise synthesis of graphene oxide nanomaterial. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 6:1Google Scholar
  29. Pei S, Cheng H-M (2012) The reduction of graphene oxide. Carbon 50:3210–3228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pfannes H-D, Dias Filho J, Magalhães-Paniago R, López J, Paniago R (2001) Mössbauer spectroscopy, superparamagnetism and ferrofluids. Braz J Phys 31:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ratner N, Brodeur GM, Dale RC, Schor NF (2016) The “neuro” of neuroblastoma: Neuroblastoma as a neurodevelopmental disorder. Ann Neurol 80:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sagnella SM, Trieu J, Brahmbhatt H, Macdiarmid JA, Macmillan A, Whan RM, Fife CM, Mccarroll JA, Gifford AJ, Ziegler DS (2018) Targeted doxorubicin-loaded bacterially derived nano-cells for the treatment of neuroblastoma. Mol Cancer Ther 17:1012–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sharker SM, Lee JE, Kim SH, Jeong JH, In I, Lee H, Park SY (2015) pH triggered in vivo photothermal therapy and fluorescence nanoplatform of cancer based on responsive polymer-indocyanine green integrated reduced graphene oxide. Biomaterials 61:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smalley RE (1997) Discovering the fullerenes. Rev Mod Phys 69:723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weaver CL, Larosa JM, Luo X, Cui XT (2014) Electrically controlled drug delivery from graphene oxide nanocomposite films. ACS Nano 8:1834–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xu Y, Gao Q, Liang H, Zheng K (2016) Effects of functional graphene oxide on the properties of phenyl silicone rubber composites. Polym Testing 54:168–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yang T, Choi W, Yoon TH, Jin Lee K, Lee J-S, Hun Han S, Lee M-G, Yim H, Min Choi K, Park M, Jung K-Y, Baek S-K (2012) Real-time phase-contrast imaging of photothermal treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: an in vitro study of macrophages as a vector for the delivery of gold nanoshells. J Biomed Opt 17:128003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yap YK (2015) Chemical synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide for use as saturable absorber and broadband polarizer/Yap Yuen Kiat. University of MalayaGoogle Scholar
  39. Ye H, Wang K, Wang M, Liu R, Song H, Li N, Lu Q, Zhang W, Du Y, Yang W (2019) Bioinspired nanoplatelets for chemo-photothermal therapy of breast cancer metastasis inhibition. Biomaterials 206:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhao C-X, Niu C-Y, Qin Z-J, Ren XY, Wang J-T, Cho J-H, Jia Y (2016) H 18 carbon: a new metallic phase with sp2–sp3hybridized bonding network. Sci Rep 6:21879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhu Y, Murali S, Cai W, Li X, Suk JW, Potts JR, Ruoff RS (2010) Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications. Adv Mater 22:3906–3924CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations