Persistence, Toxicity, and Biodegradation of Gold- and Iron Oxide-Based Nanoparticles in the Living Systems

  • Kanwal Akhtar
  • Yasir JavedEmail author
  • Naveed A. Shad
  • Navadeep Shrivastava
  • S. K. Sharma
Part of the Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology book series (NANOMED)


Inorganic nanomaterials have been extensively investigated for several biological applications ranging from targeted drug delivery to cancer treatment and tissue engineering to in vivo imaging. Gold and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are important candidate of inorganic nanomaterials considering their non-toxic nature and relevant magnetic and optical properties. Most of the biomedical applications involve detailed tuning of surface charge and physiochemical properties. Understanding of pharmacokinetics of these nanoparticles is very important to elaborate on the distribution and fate in the living organism. Many factors including size distribution, charge, and plasma protein adsorption; coating molecules can tune effectively to monitor the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the gold- and iron oxide-based nanoparticles. This chapter reviews the crucial parameters that affect the biodistribution, fate, and toxicity of the inorganic nanoparticles in the biological systems.


Inorganic nanomaterials Biomedical applications Pharmacokinetics Bio-distribution Bio-degradation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kanwal Akhtar
    • 1
  • Yasir Javed
    • 1
    Email author
  • Naveed A. Shad
    • 2
  • Navadeep Shrivastava
    • 3
  • S. K. Sharma
    • 4
  1. 1.Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Department of PhysicsUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsGovernment College University FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Institute of Physics, Federal University of GoiasGoiania-GOBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and TechnologyThe University of the West IndiesSaint AugustineTrinidad and Tobago

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