Advertisement

Seismicity, Lithospheric Structure and Mantle Deformation in the Andaman Nicobar Subduction Zone

  • G. Srijayanthi
  • M. Ravi KumarEmail author
Chapter
  • 45 Downloads
Part of the Society of Earth Scientists Series book series (SESS)

Abstract

In this paper, we synthesize the seismicity, seismic structure and deformation of the hitherto less investigated Andaman–Nicobar subduction zone (ANSZ) utilizing results obtained from new data accrued from a broadband seismological network. Parameterization of the subsurface through joint inversion for source mechanisms and velocity structure indicates a Moho at 30 km depth. Hypocenters of local earthquakes located using this model reveal a N-S trend to the east of the trench. The northern part of the archipelago is seismically very active compared to the middle and southern parts. Interestingly, high attenuation is also observed in the northern Andaman. Further, the attenuation characteristics of ANSZ, akin to those in the eastern Himalaya and southern Tibet, reveal an active role of intrinsic attenuation attributed to the presence of fluids associated with subduction. Collation of results from various seismological studies indicates that the geometry of the subducting Indian plate controls the rupture characteristics of major earthquakes and deformation pattern along the arc. Seismic images constructed using Receiver functions reveal variations in the crustal and lithospheric thickness along the ANSZ and tearing in the subducting Indian plate between 7° N and 8° N latitude. Clustering of earthquake swarms, their magmatic affinity and shear wave anisotropy in the mantle wedge seem to be governed by this tear. Also, the subslab anisotropy is controlled by the dip of the subducting plate, as evidenced by trench-parallel and perpendicular fast axis azimuths in steeper (>40°) and shallower segments, respectively. This observation is consistent along the whole Andaman–Sumatra–Java arc.

Keywords

Andaman subduction zone Seismicity and attenuation Receiver functions Slab tear Shear wave splitting Trench parallel anisotropy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Andaman experiment was supported by INCOIS, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. All the figures in this paper are prepared using GMT (Generic Mapping Tools), an invaluable software system from Wessel and Smith (1998). We thank Prof. M. Radhakrishna, for inviting us to write this review article.

References

  1. Aki K (1979) Characterization of barriers on an earthquake fault. J Geophys Res 84:6140–6148.  https://doi.org/10.1029/JB084iB11p06140
  2. Aki K (1980a) Attenuation of shear-waves in the lithosphere for frequencies from 0.05 to 25 Hz. Phys Earth Planet Inter 21:50–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aki K (1980b) Scattering and attenuation of shear waves in the lithosphere. J Geophys Res 85:6496–6504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aki K, Chouet B (1975) Origin of coda waves: source attenuation and scattering effects. J Geophys Res 80:3322–3342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ammon CJ (1991) The isolation of receiver effects from teleseismic P waveforms. Bull Seismol Soc Am 81(6):2504–2510Google Scholar
  6. Badi G, Del Pezzo E, Ibanez JM, Bianco F, Sabbione N, Araujo M (2009) Depth dependent seismic scattering attenuation in the Nuevo Cuyo region (southern central Andes). Geophys Res Lett 36(24)Google Scholar
  7. Barker PF (2001) Scotia Sea regional tectonic evolution: implications for mantle flow and palaeocirculation. Earth Sci Rev 55(1–2):1–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benoit MH, Torpey M, Liszewski K, Levin V, Park J (2011) P and S wave upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath the northern Apennines: new evidence for the end of subduction. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 12:Q06004.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GC003428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bianco F, Del-Pezzo E, Castellano M, Ibanez J, di Luccio F (2002) Separation of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation in the Southern Apennine zone Italy. Geophys J Int 150(1):10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burdick LJ, Langston C (1977) Modeling crustal structure through the use of converted phases in teleseismic body-wave forms. Bull Seismol Soc Am 67:677–691Google Scholar
  11. Bureau of Indian Standards (2002) IS 1893 (Part I): Indian standard criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures (5th revision). Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. http://www.mausam.gov.in/WEBIMD/seismic_zone_map.jsp
  12. Clark SA, Sobiesiak M, Zelt CA, Magnani MB, Miller MS, Bezada MJ, Levander A (2008) Identification and tectonic implications of a tear in the South American plate at the southern end of the Lesser Antilles. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9:Q11004.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GC002084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collings R, Rietbrock A, Lange D, Tilmann F, Nippress S, Natawidjaja D (2013) Seismic anisotropy in the Sumatra subduction zone. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 118:5372–5390.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrb.50157
  14. Crampin S (1984) Effective anisotropic elastic constants for wave propagation through cracked solids. Geophys J R Astron Soc 76:135145Google Scholar
  15. Crampin S (1994) The fracture criticality of crustal rocks. Geophys J Int 118(2):428–438.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1994.tb03974.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Curray JR (1989) The Sunda arc: a model for oblique plate convergence. Neth J Sea Res 24:131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Curray JR, Moore DG, Lawver LA, Emmel FJ, Raitt RW, Henry M, Kieckhefer R (1979) Tectonics of the Andaman Sea and Burma in geological and geophysical investigations of continental margins. Am Assoc Petrochem Geol Memoir 29:189–198Google Scholar
  18. Curray JR, Emmel FJ, Moore DG, Raitt RW (1982) Structure tectonics and geological history of the northeastern Indian Ocean. In: Nairn AEM, Stehli FG (eds) The ocean basins and margins. The Indian Ocean, vol 6. Plenum Press, New York, pp 399–450Google Scholar
  19. Dasgupta S, Mukhopadhyay M (1993) Seismicity and plate deformation below the Andaman arc northeastern Indian ocean. Tectonophysics 225:529–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dasović I, Herak M, Herak D (2013) Coda-Q and its lapse time dependence analysis in the interaction zone of the Dinarides, the Alps and the Pannonian basin. Phy Chem Earth, Parts A/B/C 1(63):47–54Google Scholar
  21. De Mets C, Gordon RG, Argus DF (2010) Geologically current plate motions. Geophys J Int 181:180.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04491.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Del Pezzo E, Ibanez J, Morales J, Akinci A, Maresca R (1995) Measurements of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation in the crust. Bull Seismol Soc Am 85:1373–1380Google Scholar
  23. Dickinson WR, Seely DR (1979) Structure and stratigraphy of forearc regions. Am Asso Petrol Geol Bull 63:2–31Google Scholar
  24. Evans R (1984) Anisotropy: pervasive feature fault zones? Geophys J R Astron Soc 76:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Faccenda M, Burlini L, Gerya TV, Mainprice D (2008) Fault-induced seismic anisotropy by hydration in subducting oceanic plates. Nature 455:1097–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farra V, Vinnik L (2000) Upper mantle stratification by P and S receiver functions. Geophys J Int 1;141(3):699–712Google Scholar
  27. Farra V, Vinnik LP, Romanowicz B, Kosarev GL, Kind R (1991) Inversion of teleseismic S particle motion for azimuthal anisotropy in the upper mantle: a feasibility study. Geophys J Int 106(2):421–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fehler M, Hoshiba M, Sato H, Obara K (1992) Separation of scattering and intrinsic attenuation for the Kanto–Tokai region Japan using measurements of S-wave energy versus hypocentral distance. Geophys J Int 108:787–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fischer KM, Wiens DA (1996) The depth distribution of mantle anisotropy beneath the Tonga subduction zone. Earth Planet Sci Lett 142(1–2):253–260.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(96)00084-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fitch TJ (1972) Plate convergence transcurrent faults and internal deformation adjacent to SE Asia and Western Pacific. J Geophys Res 77:4432–4460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Frankel A, Wennerberg L (1987) Energy-flux model of seismic coda: separation of scattering and intrinsic attenuation. Bull Seismol Soc Am 77:1223–1251Google Scholar
  32. Gahalaut VK, Nagarajan B, Catherine JK, Kumar S (2006) Constraints on 2004 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake rupture from GPS measurements in Andaman–Nicobar Islands. Earth Planet Sci Lett 242:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gasparon M, Rosenbaum G, Wijbrans J, Manetti P (2009) The transition from subduction arc to slab tearing: Evidence from Capraia Island, northern Tyrrhenian Sea, J Geodyn 47:30–38Google Scholar
  34. GEBCO (2003) 1-minute Global Bathymetry Grid. http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/gebco/gebco.html
  35. Giacomuzzi G, De Gori Civalleri MP, Chiarabba C (2012) A 3D Vs model of the upper mantle beneath Italy: insight on the geodynamics of central Mediterranean. Earth Planet Sci Lett 35:105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Giampiccolo E, Gresta S, Rasconà F (2004) Intrinsic and scattering attenuation from observed seismic codas in Southeastern Sicily (Italy). Phys Earth Planet Inter 145(1–4):55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gripp AE, Gordon RG (2002) Young tracks of hotspots and current plate velocities. Geophys J Int 150:321–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gudmundsson O, Sambridge M (1998) A regionalized upper mantle (RUM) seismic model. J Geophys Res 103:7121–7136.  https://doi.org/10.1029/97JB02488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gupta S, Borah K, Saha G (2016) Continental like crust beneath the Andaman Island through joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave from ambient seismic noise. Tectonophysics 687:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gvirtzman Z, Nur A (1999) The formation of Mount Etna as the consequence of slab rollback. Nature 401:782–785Google Scholar
  41. Hamilton W (1979) Tectonics of the Indonesian region. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1078Google Scholar
  42. Hammond JOS, Wookey J, Kaneshima S, Inoue H, Yamashina T, Harjadi P (2010) Systematic variation in anisotropy beneath the mantle wedge in the Java-Sumatra subduction system from shear wave splitting. Phys Earth Planet Inter 178:189–201Google Scholar
  43. Hazarika P, Kumar MR, Kumar D (2013) Attenuation character of seismic waves in Sikkim Himalaya. Geophys J Int 195(1):544–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoshiba M, Sato H, Fehler M (1991) Numerical basis of the separation of scattering and intrinsic absorption from full seismogram envelope: a Monte-Carlo simulation of multiple isotropic scattering. Papers Meteorol Geophys 42:65–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoshiba M, Rietbrock A, Scherbaum F, Nakahara H, Haberland C (2001) Scattering attenuation and intrinsic absorption using uniform and depth dependent model—application to full seismogram envelope recorded in Northern Chile. J Seismol 5:157–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ibanez J, Del Pezzo E, De Miguel F, Herraiz M, Alguacil G, Morales J (1990) Depth-dependent seismic attenuation in the Granada zone (Southern Spain). Bull Seismol Soc Am 80(5):1232–1244Google Scholar
  47. Jarrard RD (1986) Relations among subduction parameters. Rev Geophys 24(2):217–284Google Scholar
  48. Jung H, Katayama I, Jiang Z, Hiraga T, Karato S (2006) Effect of water and stress on the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine. Tectonophysics 421:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kamesh Raju KA, Ramprasad T, Rao PS, Rao BR, Varghese J (2004) New insights into the tectonic evolution of the Andaman basin northeast Indian Ocean. Earth Planet Sci Lett 221(1–4):145–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(04)00075-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kamesh Raju KA, Ray D, Mudholkar A, Murty GPS, Gahalaut VK, Samudrala K, Paropkari AL, Ramachandran R, Prakash LS (2012) Tectonic and volcanic implications of a cratered seamount off Nicobar Island Andaman Sea. J Asian Earth Sci 56:42–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Karato S-I, Jung H, Katayama I, Skemer P (2008) Geodynamic significance of seismic anisotropy of the upper mantle: new insights from laboratory studies. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 36:59–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kayal JR, Gaonkar SG, Chakraborty GK, Singh OP (2004) Aftershocks and Seismotectonic Implication of the 13 September 2002 Earthquake (Mw 6.5) in the Andaman Sea Basin. Bull Seismol Soc Am 94:326–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Knopoff L, Hudson JA (1964) Scattering of elastic waves by small inhomogeneities. J Acoust Soc Am 36(2):338–343Google Scholar
  54. Kumar MR, Rao NP, Chalam SV (1996) A seismotectonic study of the Burma and Andaman arc regions using centroid moment tensor data. Tectonophysics 253:155–165Google Scholar
  55. Kumar P, Srijayanthi G, Kumar MR (2016) Seismic evidence for tearing in the subducting Indian slab beneath the Andaman arc. Geophys Res Lett 43(10): 489–4904.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068590
  56. Kundu B, Legrand D, Gahalaut K, Gahalaut VK, Mahesh P, Kamesh Raju KA, Catherine JK, Ambikapthy A, Chadha R. K. (2012) The 2005 volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm in the Andaman Sea: triggered by the 2004 great Sumatra–Andaman earthquake. Tectonics 31(5).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012TC003138
  57. Long MD, Becker TW (2010) Mantle dynamics and seismic anisotropy. Earth Planet Sci Lett 297:341–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Long MD, Silver PG (2008) The subduction zone flow field from seismic anisotropy: a global view. Science 319(5861):315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Long MD, Silver PG (2009) Mantle flow in subduction systems: the subslab flow field and implications for mantle dynamics. J Geophys Res 114 (B10)Google Scholar
  60. Lucente FP, Chiarabba C, Cimini GB, Giardini D (1999) Tomographic constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the Italian region. J Geophys Res 104(B9):20307–20327.  https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JB900147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lynner C, Long MD (2014a) Sub-slab anisotropy beneath the Sumatra and circum-Pacific subduction zones from source-side shear wave splitting observations. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 15:2262–2281.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GC005239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lynner C, Long MD (2014b) Testing models of sub-slab anisotropy using a global compilation of source-side shear wave splitting data. J Geophys Res 119(9):7226–7244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Malik JN, Murty C, Rai DC (2006) Landscape changes in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) after the December 2004 great Sumatra earthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami. Earthq. Spectra 22(S3):43–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mayeda K, Koyanagi S, Hoshiba M, Aki K, Zeng Y (1992) A comparative study of scattering intrinsic and coda Q for Hawaii Long Valley and central California between 1.5 and 15.0 Hz. J Geophys Res 97:6643–6659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Meighan HE, ten Brink U, Pulliam J (2013) Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity. Geophys Res Lett 40:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Millen DW, Hamburger MW (1998) Seismological evidence for tearing of the Pacific plate at the northern termination of the Tonga subduction zone. Geology 26(7):659–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Miller MS, Gorbatov A, Kennett BLN (2005) Heterogeneity within the subducting Pacific plate beneath the Izu–Bonin–Mariana arc: evidence from tomography using 3D ray-tracing inversion techniques. Earth Planet Sci Lett 235:331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mishra OP, Kayal JR, Chakrabortty GK, Singh OP, Ghosh D (2007) Aftershock investigation in the Andaman–Nicobar Islands of India and its seismotectonic implications. Bull Seismol Soc Am 97:71–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mishra OP, Zhao D, Ghosh C, Wang Z, Singh OP, Ghosh B, Mukherjee KK, Saha DK, Chakrabortty GK, Gaonkar SG (2011) Role of crustal heterogeneity beneath Andaman–Nicobar Islands and its implications for coastal hazard. Nat Hazards 57(1):51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mukhopadhyay M (1988) Gravity anomalies and deep structure of the Andaman-Arc. Marine Geophysical Research 9:197–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mukhopadhyay S, Tyagi C (2007) Lapse time and frequency-dependent attenuation characteristics of coda waves in the Northwestern Himalayas. J Seismol 11(2):149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mukhopadhyay S, Sharma J, Del-Pezzo E, Kumar N (2010) Study of attenuation mechanism for Garwhal–Kumaun Himalayas from analysis of coda of local earthquakes. Phys Earth Planet Inter 180:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Müller RD, Sdrolias M, Gaina C, Roest WR (2008) Age spreading rates and spreading asymmetry of the world’s ocean crust. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9:Q04006.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GC001743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ohuchi T, Kawazoe T, Nishihara Y, Irifune T (2012) Change of olivine a-axis alignment induced by water: origin of seismic anisotropy in subduction zones. Earth Planet Sci Lett 317:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Padhy S, Subhadra N (2013) Separation of intrinsic and scattering seismic wave attenuation in Northeast India. Geophys J Int 195:1892–1903Google Scholar
  76. Padhy S, Subhadra N, Kayal JR (2011) Frequency-dependent attenuation of body and coda waves in the Andaman Sea Basin. Bull Seismol Soc Am 101:109–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pal T, Bandopadhyay PC, Mitra SK, Raghav SR (2007) Recent eruption (2005) of Barren volcano: an explosive inner arc volcanism in Andaman Sea. J Geol Soc India 69:1195–1202Google Scholar
  78. Pesicek JD, Thurber CH, Zhang H, De Shon HR, Engdahl ER, Widiyantoro S (2010) Teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes along the Sumatra–Andaman subduction zone using a 3D model. J Geophys Res 115(B10)  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jb007443
  79. Phinney RA (1964) Structure of the Earth’s crust from spectral behavior of long period body waves. J Geophys Res 69(14):2997–3017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Radhakrishna M, Lasitha S, Mukhopadhyay M (2008) Seismicity gravity anomalies and lithospheric structure of the Andaman arc NE Indian Ocean. Tectonophysics 460(1):248–262.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2008.08.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rao NP, Rao ChN, Hazarika P, Tiwari VM, Kumar MR, Singh A (2011) Structure and tectonics of the Andaman Subduction Zone from modeling of seismological and gravity data. In: Sharkov EV (ed) New Frontiers in tectonic research-general problems sedimentary basins and island arcs. Intech Publishers, Rijeka, pp 249–268Google Scholar
  82. Reyners M, Gledhill K, Waters D (1991) Tearing of the subducted Australian plate during the Te Anau New Zealand earthquake of 1988 June. Geophys J Int 104:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Richards S, Lister G, Kennett B (2007) A slab in depth: three-dimensional geometry and evolution of the Indo-Australian plate. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 8:Q12003.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GC001657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rosenbaum G, Piana Agostinetti N (2015) Crustal and upper mantle responses to lithospheric segmentation in the northern Apennines. Tectonics 34:648–661.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013TC0034981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rosenbaum G, Gasparon M, Lucente FP, Peccerillo A, Miller MS (2008) Kinematics of slab tear faults during subduction segmentation and implications for Italian magmatism. Tectonics 27(2)Google Scholar
  86. Russo RM, Silver PG (1994) Trench-parallel flow beneath the Nazca plate from seismic anisotropy. Science 263(5150):1105–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sato H (1977) Energy propagation including scattering effects single isotropic scattering approximation. J Phys Earth 25:27–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Savage MK (1999) Seismic anisotropy and mantle deformation: what have we learned from shear wave splitting? Rev Geophys 37(1):65–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schellart WP (2007) The potential influence of subduction zone polarity on overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angle. Tectonophysics 20;445(3–4):363–372Google Scholar
  90. Shapiro NM, Ritzwoller MH, Engdahl ER (2008) Structural context of the great Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake. Geophys Res Lett 35(5).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033381
  91. Sheth HC, Ray JS, Bhutani R, Kumar A, Awasthi N (2010) The latest (2008–09) eruption of Barren Island volcano and some thoughts on its hazards logistics and geotourism aspects. Curr Sci 98:620–626Google Scholar
  92. Sieh K, Natawidjaja D (2000) Neotectonics of the sumatran fault, Indonesia. J Geophys Res 105:28295–28326Google Scholar
  93. Singh C, Basha S, Shekar M, Chadha RK (2012a) Spatial variation of coda wave attenuation in the Southern Indian shield and its implications. Geol Acta 10:309–318Google Scholar
  94. Singh C, Bharathi VS, Chadha RK (2012b) Lapse time and frequency dependent attenuation characteristics of Kumaun Himalaya. J Asian Earth Sci 54:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Singh C, Mukhopadhyay S, Singh S, Chakraborty P, Kayal JR (2015) Study of lapse time dependence coda Q in the Andaman Islands using the aftershocks of the 2002 earthquake (Mw 6.5). Natural Hazards 75(1):779–793Google Scholar
  96. Singh C, Biswas R, Srijayanthi G, Kumar MR (2017) Relative role of intrinsic and scattering attenuation beneath the Andaman Islands India and tectonic implications. Phys Earth Planet Inter 271:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Singh C, Jaiswal N, Mukhopadhyay S (2019) Pg Q model for Nepal Himalaya. Phys Earth Planet Inter 286:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Song T-RA, Kawakatsu H (2012) Subduction of oceanic asthenosphere: evidence from sub-slab seismic anisotropy. Geophys Res Lett 39(17)Google Scholar
  99. Spence W (1977) The aleutian are: Tectonic blocks, episodic subduction, strain diffusion, and magma generation. J Geophys Res 82:213–230.  https://doi.org/10.1029/JB082i002p00213
  100. Srijayanthi G (2016) Investigation of seismicity and lithospheric structure beneath the Andaman-Nicobar subduction zone, Ph.D. Thesis, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  101. Srijayanthi G, Kumar MR (2019) Subslab anisotropy in the Andaman subduction zone controlled by slab dip? Phys Earth Planet Inter 286:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Srijayanthi G, Kumar MR, Sirisha T, Sushini K, Prasad GS, Raju PS, Singh A, Rao NP (2012) The ISLANDS network in the Andaman–Nicobar subduction zone. Seismol Res Lett 83:686–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Srijayanthi G, Kumar MR, Prasanna S, Rao NP (2017) Source characteristics of the 2012 earthquake swarm activity in the Andaman spreading ridge. J Ind Geophys Union 21(1):25–33Google Scholar
  104. Subarya C, Chlieh M, Prawirodirdjo L, Avouac J-P, Bock Y, Sieh K, Meltzner AJ, Natawidjaja DH, McCaffrey R (2006) Plateboundary deformation associated with the great Sumatra–Andaman earthquake. Nature 440:46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ugalde A, Vargas CA, Pujades LG, Canas JA (2002) Seismic coda attenuation after the Mw = 6.2 Armenia Colombia earthquake of 25 January 1999. J Geophys Res 107(B6):1–12Google Scholar
  106. van der Hilst R, Seno T (1993) Effects of relative plate motion on the deep structure and penetration depth of slabs below the Izu–Bonin and Mariana island arcs. Earth Planet Sci Lett 120(3–4):395–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Vinnik LP (1977) Detection of waves converted from P to SV in the mantle. Phys Earth Planet Inter 15:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Walpole J, Wookey J, Kendall JM, Masters TG (2017) Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow below subducting slabs. Earth Planet Sci Lett 465:155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wessel P, Smith WHF (1998) New improved version of generic mapping tools released. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 79(47):579.  https://doi.org/10.1029/98EO00426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yadav RK, Kundu B, Gahalaut K, Catherine J, Gahalaut VK, Ambikapthy A, Naidu MS (2013) Coseismic offsets due to the 11 April 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and 8.2) derived from GPS measurements. Geophys Res Lett 40:3389–3393. https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50601

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Seismological ResearchRaisan, GandhinagarIndia
  2. 2.CSIR-National Geophysical Research InstituteHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations