Advertisement

Nature in Built Space in Asia and the Pacific

  • Ambe J. Njoh
Chapter
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

The Asia and Pacific region has been experiencing many problems arising from heightened levels of urbanization, population growth, and industrialization. These factors have exacerbated many problems in built space, especially those relating to energy, food and water shortages as well as traffic congestion and air pollution. Paradoxically, these problems have been compounded by the unprecedented levels of economic growth experienced in the region in the recent past. For instance, problems of traffic congestion, noise and air pollution were relatively absent from the region until the dawn of its ‘economic miracle.’ This chapter has shed some light on efforts to promote nature in built space in the face of the identified problems. In particular, the chapter has discussed the many ways by which the region’s political, economic, social, technological, ecological, cultural and historical contexts have affected initiatives to create and maintain forests, gardens, parks, and green infrastructure in general in its built space.

References

  1. Akerlund U, Knuth L, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (2006) Urban and Peri-Urban Forestry and Greening in West and Central Asia: experiences, constraints and prospects. LSP working paper 36. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Access to Natural Resources Sub-ProgrammeGoogle Scholar
  2. Badiner AH (ed) (1990) Dharma Gaia: a harvest of essays in Buddhism and ecology. Parallax Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  3. BBC (Online) What does Hinduism teach about the environment? Accessed 10 Sept 2019 via: bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zbvrq6f/revision/3
  4. Bluefield Research (2019) Southeast Asia private water utilities: company rankings, 2016. Accessed 23 Sept 2019 via: https://www.bluefieldresearch.com/research/southeast-asia-private-water-rankings/
  5. Clippard S (2011) The Lorax wears saffron: toward a Buddhist environmentalism. J Buddh Ethics 18:211–48Google Scholar
  6. ECOASIA (Online) A long-term perspective on environment and development in Asia-Pacific region. An E-Book by the Environmental Congress for Asia and the Pacific (ECOASIA) Available online. Accessed 8 Sept 2019 via: https://www.env.go.jp/earth/ecoasia/workshop/bluebook/chapter1-1.html
  7. Escobedo F, Seitz J (2009) The costs of managing an urban forest. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Report NE-186, Radnor, PA (1994), 83–94Google Scholar
  8. Galang J (2016) Asia-Pacific ‘hot spot for water insecurity.’ Feature article, scidev.net. Accessed 23 Sept 2019 via: scidev.net/global/water/feature/asia-pacific-hot-spot-for-water-insecurity.html
  9. Grim JA (2019) Indigenous lifeways and ecology. Available online. Accessed 14 Sept 2019 via: http://fore.yale.edu/religion/indigenous/
  10. Hanh TN (1990) Earth gathas. In: Badiner AH (ed) Dharma Gaia: a harvest of essays in Buddhism and ecology. Parallax Press, Berkeley, CA, p 195Google Scholar
  11. Hope M, Young J (2019) Islam and ecology. Cross currents. Available online. Accessed 14 Oct 2019 via: https://crosscurrents.org/islamecology.htm
  12. Kowarik I (2018) Urban wilderness: supply, demand, and access. Urban For Urban Green 29:336–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nasr SH (1968a) Man and nature: the spiritual crisis of modern man. George Allen and Unwin Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Nasr SH (1968b) Science and civilization in Islam. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  15. Nasr SH (1972) Sufi essays. George Allen and Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Nasr SH (1976) Islamic science: an illustrated study. World of Islam Festival Publishing Co. and Thorson Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Nasr SH (1987) Traditional Islam and the modern world. Kegan Paul, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Nasr SH (1989) Gifford lectures. State University of New York Press, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  19. Palit D, Chaurey A (2011) Off-grid rural electrification experiences from South Asia: status and best practice. Energy for sustainable development, 15, 266–276Google Scholar
  20. PCF (Online) Inner city gardening. Perth City Farms (PCF). Available online. Accessed 19 Sept 2019 via: https://www.perthcityfarm.org.au/city-greening
  21. PRC (2015) The future of world religions: population growth. Pew Research Centre (PRC). Demographic study (April 2015). Available online. Accessed 10 Sept 2010 via https://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/02/asia-pacific/
  22. Sarker AF, Bornman JF, Marino D (2019) A framework for integrating agriculture in urban sustainability in Australia. Urban Sci 3(50).  https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3020050
  23. Song XP, Tan PY, Edwards P, Richards D (2018) The economic benefits and costs of trees in urban forest stewardship: a systematic review. Urban For Urban Green 29:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tinh NT, Warnaars M, Duyen TTB, Ngoc TTB (2007) Farming in the city: an annotated bibliography of urban and peri-urban agriculture in Vietnam with emphasis on Hanoi. Limi Peru: Urban Harvest Global Coordination Office, C/O. International Potato Center (CIP)Google Scholar
  25. UNEP (2012) Summary for Asia and the Pacific region: On the Eve of Rio+20. Global Environmental Outlook (GEO5). Retrieved on September 25, 2019 from: http://www.unep.org/geo
  26. UNEP (2016) The emissions gap report 2016. United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  27. UNESCO (2015) Towards sustainable groundwater management in Asian cities. In: UNESCO, Facing the challenges: case studies and indicators. UNESCO, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  28. UNESCAP (2018) Achieving SDG7 in Asia and the Pacific. Policy Brief #19. United Nations Economic Commission for Asia Pacific (UNESCAP) in Collaboration with ADB, AIIB, FIA Foundation, IEA, IRENA and UNDPGoogle Scholar
  29. UN-Water (2019) Special regional session: achieving water security for Asia and the Pacific through sustainable water management. Session report, 15th January 2015. Accessed 24 Sept 2019 via: https://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/waterandsustainabledevelopment2015/pdf/sesiones/Regional_Session_Asia%20and%20Pacific.pdf
  30. United Nations ESCAP (2018) Asia-Pacific progress in sustainable energy: a global tracking framework 2017 regional assessment report. Available online. Accessed 27 Jan 2019 via: https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/publications/A%20Global%20Tracking%20Framework_Web%202018_0.pdf
  31. Xinhua (2018) 300 million people in Asia Pacific have no improved access to water: ADB. Available online. Accessed 22 Sept 2019 via: sinhuanet.com/English/2018-10/02/c_137507412.htm
  32. Yeung Y (1987) Examples of urban agriculture in Asia. Food Nutr Bull, 9(2): 14–23. The United Nations University PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ambe J. Njoh
    • 1
  1. 1.School of GeosciencesUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations