Advertisement

Nature in Built Space in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Ambe J. Njoh
Chapter
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

There are many political, economic, social, technological, ecological, cultural and historical (PESTECH) factors affecting efforts to promote nature in built space in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Because of its checkered history, especially as it concerns colonialism, the region’s policies are heavily influenced by historical factors. This is particularly the case with policies relating to nature in built space, which are a subset of urban or town planning policies bequeathed to indigenous authorities by departing colonial masters. This chapter highlights the traces of colonialism not only in its treatment of the historical factors but also in its analysis of the political, economic and technological contexts of efforts to promote nature in built space. In doing so, the chapter demonstrates the intensity of colonial influence on urban and peri-urban forestry, and farming, water supply and energy in the built environment in SSA.

References

  1. Amoako-Atta B (1998) Preservation of sacred groves in Ghana: Esukawkaw forest reserve and its anweam sacred grove. UNESCO Division of Ecological Sciences South-South Co-operation Programme, ParisGoogle Scholar
  2. Beach M (2013) Urban agriculture increases food security in Africa. Accessed 20 Aug 2019 at: prb.org/urban-agriculture-poor-africa
  3. Black History Studies (Online) 15 things you did not know about the moors of Spain. Accessed 19 Aug 2019 at: https://blackhistorystudies.com
  4. Boutros C (Online) Top challenges facing Africa today. Accessed 4 Aug 2019 at: https://www.globalyoungvoices.com/fast-news-blog/2016/5/5/top-challenges-facing-africa-today
  5. Brew-Hammond A (2010) Energy access in Africa: challenges ahead. Energy Policy 38:2291–2301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Daily Nation (2007) Liberia: where children study under street lights. Daily Nation, July 27, 2007. Accessed 23 Jan 2020 via: https://www.nation.co.ke/lifestyle/1190-1986-gfcgh02/index
  7. Danso G, Kereita B, Afrane Y (2002) Farming Systems in urban agriculture, Accra, Ghana. With special focus on its profitability, Wastewater use and added Malaria Risk. Consultancy report submitted to FAO-Ghana Office via International Management InstituteGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis M (1998) Rural household energy consumption: the effects of access to electricity—evidence from South Africa. Energy Policy 26(3):207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dawes A, Richter L, Higson-Smith C (2005) Confronting the problem. In: Richter L, Dawes A, Higson-Smith C (eds) Sexual abuse of young children in Southern Africa. Human Science Research Council (HSRC), Cape Town, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  10. Dillon RG (1990) Ranking and Resistance: A Precolonial Cameroonian Polity in Regional Perspective. Stanford, California: Stanford University PressGoogle Scholar
  11. Economist, The (2007) The Dark Continent: Power shortages have become one of the biggest brakes on development. The Economist Magazine, Available online. Accessed 4 Oct 2019 at: http://www.economist.com/node/9660077
  12. Emeagweli G, Dei S (2014) African indigenous knowledge and disciplines. Brill, LeidenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Enzler SM (2006) Environmental effects of warfare: the impact of war on the environment and human health. Available Online. Accessed 4 Aug 2019 at: https://www.lenntech.com/environmental-effects-war.htmhttps://www.lenntech.com/environmental-effects-war.htm
  14. Gillard R, Oates L, Kasaija P, Sudmant,A, Gouldson A (2019) Sustainable urban infrastructure for all: Lessons on solar-powered street lights from Kampala and Jinja, Uganda An online publication of Frontrunners: a series of policy briefs to inform national governments on the economic and social benefits of action for sustainable cities. Accessed 18 Feb 2020 via: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332395708_Sustainable_urban_infrastructure_for_all_Lessons_on_solar-powered_street_lights_from_Kampala_and_Jinja_Uganda
  15. Global Trends (2019) Paradox of progress: sub-Saharan Africa. Available online. Accessed 4 Aug 2019 at: https://www.dni.gov/indes.php/the-next-five-years/sub-sahara-africa
  16. Gockowski J, Mbazo’o J, Mbah G, Moulende TF (2003) African traditional leafy vegetables and the urban and Peri-urban poor. Food Policy 28(3):221–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gray R (1982) Christianity and colonialism in sub-Saharan Africa. J Black Stud 13(1):59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harvey D (2008) The right to the City. New Left Rev 53:23–40Google Scholar
  19. Home R (1990) Town planning and garden cities in the British colonial empire 1910–1940. Plan Perspect 5:23–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Home R (1997) Of Planting and Planning: The making of British colonial cities. E & FN, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Hungerford H, Smiley SL (2016) Comparing colonial water provision in British and French Africa. J Hist Geogr 52:74–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kanduza AM (2009) ‘Let there be light’: the struggle for developing electricity supply in Botswana, 1950–1970. Botswana Notes and Records 41Google Scholar
  23. Kuo, L. (2016). A 700-Year Old West African Farming Practice Could be an Answer to Climate Change. Quartz Africa (June 22, 2016) Accessed online 39–46.on 14 Oct 2019 via: https://qz.com/africa/713512/a-700-year-old-west-african-farming-practice-could-be-an-answer-to-climate-change/
  24. Lee A, Schultz KA (2009) Comparing British and French colonial legacies: A discontinuity analysis of Cameroon. Papers discussed at the Working Group on African Political Economy (WGAPE), Stanford University, 11–12 December. Available online. Retrieved Sep. 20, 2019 from: http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/polisci/wgape/papers/17_Lee.pdf
  25. Lefebvre H (1968) Le Droit à la ville. Anthropos, ParisGoogle Scholar
  26. Lefebvre H (1974) La production de l’espace. Anthropos, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lepapa N (2017) The major problems that Africa is facing today, 2019. Posted online, Wed. Apr 5, 2017. Accessed 4 Aug 2019 at: https://www.africanexponent.com/post/8304-poor-governance-corruption-and-insecurity-major-problems-confronting-africa
  28. Makarieva AM, Gorshkov VG (2007) Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture as driver of the hydrological cycle on land. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 11:1013–1033.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-11-1013-2007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Makarieva AM, Gorshkov VG (2010) The biotic pump: condensation, atmospheric dynamics and climate. Int J Water 5(4):365–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marwah H (2017) Electricity access inequality in sub-Saharan Africa, 1950–2000. Afr Econ Hist 45(2):113–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mavhunga CC (2014) Energy, industry, and transport in South-Central Africa’s history. In: Mavhunga CC, Trischier H (eds) Energy (and) colonialism, energy (in)dependence: Africa, Europe, Greenland, North America. Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Munich, pp 5–8Google Scholar
  32. Mavhunga CC, Trischier H (eds) (2014) Energy (and) colonialism, energy (in)dependence: Africa, Europe, Greenland, North America. Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  33. Mawajje J, Munyambonera E, Bategeka L (2013) Powering ahead: the reform of the electricity sector in Uganda. Energy and Environment Research 3(2):126–138Google Scholar
  34. Mazrui A (2004) Islam and acculturation in East Africa’s experience. Lecture given at the National Defense College of Kenya, near Nairobi, on July 27, 2004, and subsequently repeated at Sheikh Khalifa School, Mombasa, on August 2, 2004. Available online. Retrieved, July 27, 2019 from: http://igcs.binghamton.edu/igcs_site/dirton20.htm
  35. Mbatha S, Wilson Z, Buckley C (n.d.) Zulu indigenous practices in water and sanitation: preliminary field research on indigenous practices in water and sanitation. Paper #199, The Ulundi Water Institute of South Africa (WISA)Google Scholar
  36. Mereri M (2002) Private investment in urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya. Urban Agriculture Magazine no. 7. August 2002. Economics of Urban Agriculture. Leusden, RUAFGoogle Scholar
  37. Mitchell D (2003) The right to the City: social justice and the fight for public space. Guilford Press, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Mwaura FM (2012) Adopting electricity prepayment billing system to reduce nontechnical energy losses in Uganda: lessons from Rwanda. Util Policy 23:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nilsson D (2017) The unseeing state: how ideals of modernity have undermined innovation in Africa’s urban water systems. N.T.M.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00048-017-0160-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Njoh AJ (1998) The political economy of urban land reforms in post-colonial state. Int Rev Urban Reg Res 22:408–423Google Scholar
  41. Njoh AJ (1999) The state, urban development policy and Society in Cameroon. Cities Int J Public Policy Plann 16(2):111–122Google Scholar
  42. Njoh AJ (2006) Tradition, culture and development in Africa: historical lessons for modern development planning. Ashgate, HampshireGoogle Scholar
  43. Njoh AJ (2007) Planning power: Town planning and social control in colonial Africa. University College London (UCL) Press, London/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Njoh AJ (2011) Citizen participation and sustainability: lessons from Cameroon. Development 54(3):376–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Njoh AJ (2013) Equity, fairness and justice implications of land tenure formalization in Cameroon. Int J Urban Reg Res 37(2):750–768.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01168.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Njoh AJ (2015) “The right-to-the-city question” and indigenous urban populations in capital cities in Cameroon. J Asian Afr Stud 52(2):188–200.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0021909615570954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Njoh AJ (2016) A multivariate analysis of inter-country differentials in electricity supply as a function of colonialism in Africa. Energy 117:214–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Njoh AJ, Akiwumi F (2011) The impact of colonization on access to improved water and sanitation facilities in African cities. Cities 28(5):452–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Njoh AJ, Akiwumi FA (2012) The impact of religion on women empowerment as a millennium development goal in Africa. Soc Indic Res 107:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Njoh AJ, Etta S, Essia U, Ngyah-Etchutambe, Enomah LED, Tarke MO, Tabrey HT (2018) Implications of institutional frameworks for renewable energy policy administration: Case study of the Esaghem, Cameroon community PV solar electrification project Energy Policy 128:17–24Google Scholar
  51. Njoh AJ, Etta S, Ngyah-Etchutambe IB, Enomah LED, Tabrey HT, Essia U (2019) Opportunities and challenges to rural renewable energy projects in Africa: Lessons from the Esaghem Village, Cameroon solar electrification project. Renew Energy 131:1013–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Olukoju A (2012) Infrastructure development and urban facilities in logos, 1861–2000. French Institute for Research in Africa (IFRA-Nigeria), Lagos, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  53. Phillip A (2006) Electricity and water supply in colonial Nigeria: a case study of Makurdi town 1927–1960. Hist Soc Niger 16:48–77Google Scholar
  54. Prussin L (1974) An introduction to indigenous African architecture. J Soc Archit Hist 58(3):424–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rigolon A, Browning MHEM, Lee K, Shin S (2018) Access to urban green space in cities of the global south: a systematic literature review. Urban Sci 2:67. 10.33901urbansci2030067. www.mdpi.com/journal/urbansci
  56. Rodney W (1982) How Europe underdeveloped Africa. Howard University Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  57. Schneidman W, Ireland J, Kayihura R, Haley B, Owzarkowski U, Fontana L, Crowder S, Stiet K, Mashalane K (2019) Top ten issues to watch in Africa in 2019. Posted Online on February 6, 2019. Accessed 4 Aug 2019 at: https://www.covafrica.com/2019/02/top-ten-issues-to-watch-in-africa-in-2019/
  58. Schwartz JD (2013) Sustainability: clearing forests may transform local—and global—climate. Scientific American, March 4, 2013. Accessed 5 Apr 2018 at: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/clearing-forests-may-transform-local-and-global-climate/
  59. Selase AE, Jiang LF, Worlanyo AS (2015) Land tenure system in the pre-colonial era: Ghana as the Insight. Int J Afr Asian Stud 14. Accessed 10 Aug 2019 at www.iiste.org
  60. Sheil D, Murdyarso D (2009) How forests attract rain: an examination of a new hypothesis. Bioscience 59(4):341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sheridan M (2009) The environmental and social history of African sacred groves: a Tanzanian case study. Afr Stud Rev 52(1):73–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Showers KB (2011) Electrifying Africa: an environmental history with policy implications. Georgr Ann B Hum Geogr 93(3):193–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Soja EW (2010) Seeking spatial justice. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tegegne A, Tadesse M, Mekashu Y, Yamir A (2000) Market-oriented urban and Peri-urban dairy systems. Urban Agriculture Magazine, No. 2, Urban Livestock, Leusden, RUAFGoogle Scholar
  65. UN-Energy/Africa (2015) Energy for sustainable development: policy options for Africa. UN-Energy/Africa publication to CSD15. A UN collaboration mechanism and UN sub-cluster on energy in support of NEPADGoogle Scholar
  66. Winther T, Ulsrud K, Saini A (2018) Solar powered electricity access: implications for women’s empowerment in rural Kenya. Energy Res Soc Sci 44:61–74Google Scholar
  67. World Facts (2019) African countries by population density. Accessed 4 Aug 2019 at: https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/african-countries-by-population-density.html

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ambe J. Njoh
    • 1
  1. 1.School of GeosciencesUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations