Elastic Modulus Measurement Through Ambient Response Method

  • José GranjaEmail author
  • Miguel Azenha
Part of the Springer Tracts in Civil Engineering book series (SPRTRCIENG)


Concrete endures strong evolution in its mechanical behaviour since casting, passing from a solid suspension to a structural material. It is extremely important to understand and be able to predict the structural behaviour of concrete since the beginning of the hardening process for a good structural design, particularly in regard to the development of self-induced stresses (due to heat of hydration and shrinkage). In order to collect data for the relevant phenomena that have been mentioned, it is important to have methods that allow continuous monitoring of the evolution of mechanical properties of concrete since very early ages, both in laboratory environment and ‘in-situ’. In such concern, an experimental method called EMM-ARM (Elasticity Modulus Measurement through Ambient Response Method) was proposed in 2009, which is based on the modal identification of a composite beam during the curing period of concrete, allowing the continuous measurement of the E-modulus of the tested material (e.g. concrete, mortar, cement paste) since casting. This chapter provides an overview of EMM-ARM principles, evolution through the last decade, as well as several examples of application and validation.


Elastic modulus Continuous monitoring Cement-based materials Early age Modal identification 



This work was supported by FEDER funds through the Operational Program for Competitiveness Factors—COMPETE and National Funds through FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology under the project IntegraCrete PTDC/ECM‐EST/1056/2014, as well to the Research Unit ISISE (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007633). The first author also acknowledges the Ph.D. grant SFRH/BD/80338/2011 provided by FCT. The authors would also like to acknowledge the benefits of cross-linking research through the network of COST Action TU1404 “Towards the next generation of standards for service life of cement-based materials and structures” (


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, School of EngineeringISISE—Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering, University of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal

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