Odor Nuisance in the Livestock Field: A Review

  • C. ContiEmail author
  • M. Guarino
  • J. Bacenetti
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 67)


The development of residential areas near farms, and the intensification and specialization of livestock activities have led to a considerable increase in the potential of odor impact on nearby residents. The manure management system is the principal cause of odor nuisance to the surrounding neighborhood. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds are the principal odorous compounds emitted from farms. Their impact depends on animal species (pig, cattle, poultry, etc.), farm management, FIDOL factors, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus, reducing nuisance episodes is a relevant air quality issue. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models (Gaussian, Lagrangian or Eulerian) can be used to predict the impact of odors on nearby communities, and to plan setback distances, aimed at maintaining adequate buffer zones between livestock units and residents. The aim of this review was to investigate, through the analysis of the published literature, air dispersion models used to determine setback distances, aimed at protecting neighbors from odor discomfort.


Odor Livestock Air dispersion models Setback distances 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and PolicyUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly

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