Bridges to Technology: Interfaces, Design Rules, and Libraries

  • Jens LienigEmail author
  • Juergen Scheible


Having presented fabrication technology for IC chips in Chap. 2, we now investigate in detail an important aspect of the physical design process: data interfaces. We introduce circuit, layout and mask data structures, that is, the main input and output data in the design steps, in this chapter. First, we explain the input to physical design—circuit data—while focusing on schematics and netlists (Sect. 3.1); we then discuss the output of the physical design step: layout data such as layers and polygons (Sect. 3.2). Mask data, which are the data required by the foundry and generated at the end of the design process, are described in Sect. 3.3. Here, we introduce “layout post processing”, where amendments and additions to the chip layout data are performed in order to convert a physical layout into data for mask production. Technology data, provided by the chip manufacturing foundry, are crucial for producing the physical design. An important portion of these data are technological constraints which are modeled in the geometrical design rules used in physical design. Essentially, geometrical design rules are constraints for physical design, whose compliance ensures the manufacturability of the layout results. Geometrical design rules are presented in detail in Sect. 3.4. Technology data are organized in libraries. These libraries, which are extensively used in IC and PCB design, are covered in our final Sect. 3.5.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical and Computer EngineeringDresden University of TechnologyDresden, SaxonyGermany
  2. 2.Electronic Design AutomationReutlingen UniversityReutlingen, Baden-WuerttembergGermany

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