Introduction to the IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2018
- 13 Downloads
IEA’s International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) was developed in response to the increasing use of ICT in modern society and the need for people to have the capabilities necessary to participate effectively in a digital world. This report presents results from the ICILS survey in 2018 and provides an international perspective on students’ computer and information literacy (CIL) across 12 countries: Chile, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, the Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, Portugal, the United States, and Uruguay. In addition, the city of Moscow (Russian Federation) and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) participated as benchmarking entities. Eight countries completed computational thinking (CT) assessment: Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Korea, Luxembourg, Portugal, and the United States. The CT assessment was also completed by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) as a benchmarking participant. ICILS 2018 is based on a series of research questions addressing variations in CIL and CT and how student characteristics and learning contexts relate to CIL and CT. The CIL framework, comprised four strands: understanding computer use, gathering information, producing information, and digital communication. The CT framework comprised two strands (conceptualizing problems and operationalizing solutions). ICILS 2018 also collected contextual information to inform a better understanding variations in CIL and CT, including information about the pedagogical use of ICT at schools and the general use of ICT by students in and outside school. The report provides observations and interpretations that may stimulate further investigation into the computer and information literacy of school students.
- ACARA. (2015). National Assessment Program – ICT literacy years 6 & 10 2014 report. Sydney, Australia: Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu.au/_resources/D15_8761__NAP-ICT_2014_Public_Report_Final.pdf.
- Barr, D., Harrison, J., & Conery, L. (2011). Computational thinking: A digital age skill for everyone. Learning & Leading with Technology, 38(6), 20–23. Retrieved from https://id.iste.org/docs/learning-and-leading-docs/march-2011-computational-thinking-ll386.pdf.
- Binkley, M., Erstad, E., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., Miller-Ricci, M., & Rumble, M. (2012). Defining 21st century skills. In P. Griffin, B. McGaw, & E. Care (Eds.), Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills (pp. 17–66). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-2324-5_2.
- Brennan, K., & Resnick, M. (2012). New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking. Paper presented at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, Canada. Retrieved from https://web.media.mit.edu/~kbrennan/files/Brennan_Resnick_AERA2012_CT.pdf.
- Carretero, S., Vuorikari, R., & Punie, Y. (2017). DigComp 2.1: The Digital Competence Framework for Citizens with eight proficiency levels and examples of use. Joint Research Centre Report EUR 28558 EN. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.2760/38842.
- Chalkiadaki, A. (2018). A systematic literature review of 21st century skills and competencies in primary education. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 1–16. Retrieved from http://www.e-iji.net/dosyalar/iji_2018_3_1.pdf.
- Drossel, K., Eickelmann, B., & Gerick, J. (2017a). Predictors of teachers’ use of ICT in school – the relevance of school characteristics, teachers’ attitudes and teacher collaboration. Education and Information Technologies, 22(2), 551–573. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10639-016-9476-y.
- Drossel, K., Eickelmann, B., & Schulz-Zander, R. (2017b). Determinants of teachers’ collaborative use of ICT for teaching and learning: a European perspective. European Educational Research Journal, 16(6), 781–799. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1474904116655811.
- ETS. (2002). Digital transformation: A framework for ICT literacy. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/ICTREPORT.pdf.
- Eickelmann, B., & Vennemann, M. (2017). Teachers’ attitudes and beliefs towards ICT in teaching and learning in European countries. European Educational Research Journal, 16(6), 1–29. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1474904117725899.
- Fraillon, J., Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Duckworth, D., & Friedman, T. (2019). IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2018 assessment framework. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. Retrieved from https:// www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030193881.
- Fraillon, J., Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Friedman, T., & Gebhardt, E. (2014). Preparing for life in a digital age: The IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study international report. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. Retrieved from https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319142210.
- Fraillon, J., Schulz, W., & Ainley, J. (2013). International Computer and Information Literacy Study assessment framework. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). Retrieved from https://www.iea.nl/publications/assessment-framework/international-computer-and-information-literacy-study-2013.
- Gerick, J., Eickelmann, B., & Bos, W. (2017). School-level predictors for the use of ICT in schools and students’ CIL in international comparison. Large-scale Assessments in Education, 5(1), 1–13. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1186/s40536-017-0037-7.
- Goldstein, H. (2010). Multilevel statistical models (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
- Grover, S., & Pea, R. (2013). Computational thinking in K–12: A review of the state of the field. Educational Researcher, 42(1), 38–43.Google Scholar
- Kluzer, S., & Pujol Priego, L. (2018). DigComp into action: Get inspired, make it happen. In S. Carretero, Y. Punie, R. Vuorikari, M. Cabrera, & W. O’Keefe (Eds.), JRC Science for Policy Report, EUR 29115 EN. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Retrieved from http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC110624/dc_guide_may18.pdf.
- Lockheed, M., & Mandinach, E. B. (1986). Trends in educational computing: decreasing interest and the changing focus of instruction. Educational Researcher, 15(5), 21–26.Google Scholar
- Ortiz-Colon, A. M., & Marato Romo, J. L. (2016). Teaching with Scratch in compulsory secondary education. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 11(2), 67–70. Retrieved from https://online-journals.org/index.php/i-jet/article/view/5094.
- Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: Children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Raudenbush, S., & Bryk, A. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Royal Society. (2012). Shutdown or restart: The way forward for computing in UK schools. London, UK: Author. Retrieved from https://royalsociety.org/-/media/education/computing-in-schools/2012-01-12-computing-in-schools.pdf.
- Schulz, W. (2018). The reporting of ICCS 2016 results. In W. Schulz, R. Carstens, B. Losito, & J. Fraillon (Eds.), ICCS 2016 technical report. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).Google Scholar
- Shute, V. J., Sun, C., & Asbell-Clarke, J. (2017). Demystifying computational thinking. Educational Research Review, 22(1), 142–158. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/204418/.
- US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). The nation’s report card: 2014 Technology & Engineering Literacy (TEL) report card at grade 8. Report number NCES2016119. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/tel_2014/.
- Van Laar, E., van Deursen, A.J.A.M., van Dijk, J.A.G.M., & de Haan, J. (2017). The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills: A systematic literature review. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 577–588. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.010.
- Vuorikari, R., Punie, Y., Carretero Gomez, S., & van den Brande, G. (2016). DigComp 2.0: The digital competence framework for citizens. Update phase 1: The conceptual reference model. Joint Research Centre Report EUR 27948 EN. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union. Retrieved from https:// doi.org/ https://doi.org/10.2791/11517.
- Voogt, J., Fisser, P., Good, J., Mishra, P., & Yadav, A. (2015). Computational thinking in compulsory education: Towards an agenda for research and practice. Education and Information Technologies, 20(4), 715–728. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10639-015-9412-6.
- Wing, J.M. (2006). Computational thinking. Communications of the ACM, 49(3), 33–35. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1145/1118178.1118215.
- Yadav, A., Sands, P., Good, J., & Lishinki, A. (2018). Computer science and computational thinking in the curriculum: Research and practice. In J. Voogt., G. Knezek, R. Christensen, & K.W. Lai (Eds.), Second handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. Retrieved from https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319710532.
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.