Elephants in Lake Tumba Landscape: Malebo, Ngiri, and Bolombo-Losombo

  • Bila-Isia InogwabiniEmail author
Part of the Environmental History book series (ENVHIS, volume 12)


The chapter describes a survey of large mammals in the Lake Tumba landscape that focused on forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis). The survey used both line transect sampling and forest reconnaissance to collect data on elephant dung piles in three major forest blocks of the Lake Tumba Landscape (Malebo region, Ngiri Triangle and Bolombo—Losombo). The Malebo region, as it is referred to throughout this book, is the south of the Lake Tumba down to the Kwa-Kasai River and bordered in the east by the Lake Maindombe. The Ngiri Triangle, comprising the Ngiri River, is located between the Congo River and the Ubangi River from where the two rivers join together. Bolombo–Losombo is located between the Congo River and the Lulonga River. After the completion of the survey, data were not sufficient to provide densities of elephant populations in these forest blocs. However, the calculated relative abundance was τ = 0.33 dung piles/km at Lukolela, τ = 0.03 dung piles/km at Ngombe–Lake Tumba and τ = 0.04 dung piles/km at Mbanzi–Malebo. Ngombe–Lake Tumba and Mbanzi–Malebo are located in the wider area of Malebo region. For both Ngiri and Bolombo–Losombo, respective values of τ were rather low but elephants were present.


Forest elephant Dung pile Encounter rate Distance sampling Conservation status 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Research and Communication in Sustainable Development (CERED)The Jesuit Loyola University of CongoKinshasaCongo, Republic

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