Enhanced Methodologies in Photovoltaic Production with Energy Storage Systems Integrating Multi-cell Lithium-Ion Batteries

  • J. B. L. FermeiroEmail author
  • J. A. N. Pombo
  • R. L. Velho
  • G. Calvinho
  • M. R. C. Rosário
  • S. J. P. S. Mariano
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 864)


The increasing world’s energy demand and the emerging environmental concerns are encouraging the search for clean energy solution. Renewable sources are free, clean and virtually limitless and for those reasons they present a great potential. This chapter addresses two concerns related to photovoltaic (PV) production with energy storage system integrating multi-cell Lithium-ion batteries. To increase the efficiency of a PV production, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is proposed based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The proposed PSO-based MPPT is able to avoid the oscillations around the maximum power point (MPP) and the convergence to a local maximum under partial shading conditions. Also, it exhibits an excellent tracking under rapid variation in the environment conditions (irradiance and temperature). Additionally, a new charging method was developed based on the parameters of the battery pack in real time, extending the battery lifespan, improving the capacity usage and the performance of the Energy Storage System (ESS). The proposed Lithium Ion (Li-ion) battery charging method analyses at each moment the difference between the desired voltage and the mean voltage of the cells, the temperature of the pack and the difference of voltages between cells. Based on the obtained information, the algorithm calculates the charging current through trilinear interpolation. It should also be noted that the proposed charging method combines a balancing method and a state of charge determination method based on the Coulomb counting method, which represents an innovation when compared to the existing methods in the literature. The experimental results of both methods demonstrate excellent performance allowing to, on the one hand, achieve an optimized PV production, and on the other hand, make the ESS more effective and efficient.


Photovoltaic MPPT Particle swarm optimization Partial shading conditions Energy storage systems Battery cell charging Battery cell balancing 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. B. L. Fermeiro
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • J. A. N. Pombo
    • 1
  • R. L. Velho
    • 1
  • G. Calvinho
    • 1
  • M. R. C. Rosário
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. J. P. S. Mariano
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electromechanical EngineeringUniversidade da Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal
  2. 2.Instituto de TelecomunicaçõesCovilhãPortugal

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