Advertisement

Cognitive Rehabilitation to Enhance Life Quality and Daily Functioning in Elderly Persons with Intellectual Disability and Alzheimer’s Disease: The Triple CAB–Elderly Intervention Model

  • Hefziba Lifshitz
Chapter
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter presents a new cognitive rehabilitation program that adapts the triple CAB model to elderly adults with ID at various stages of dementia, mostly with Alzheimer’s disease. This CAB-Elderly or CAB-E model (Cognition, Affect, and Behavior mediation for Elderly persons with Alzheimer’s) aims to help caregivers and direct staff relate to these people with comorbid ID and Alzheimer’s in ways that enhance their cognitive, affective, and behavioral functioning and improve their quality of life. The program integrates four theoretical resources: the compensation age theory and the person-centered care, cognitive rehabilitation, and mediational approaches. Deriving from a successful case-study intervention, the CAB-E model’s three mediation components – cognition, affect, and behavior – can be applied during daily activities like meals, medication administration, vocational work sessions, and leisure activities. Using the program can reduce the burden on caregivers and enable greater optimism and resilience. Detailed practical recommendations are furnished for treating older persons with ID with and without Alzheimer. This chapter supports calls for preparing adults with ID towards aging.

Keywords

Aging in ID Dementia in ID Triple CAB mediation for elderly with ID Comorbid ID and Alzheimer’s Person-centered approach Cognitive rehabilitation 

References

  1. Alcedo, M. Á., Fontanil, Y., Solís, P., Pedrosa, I., & Aguado, A. L. (2017). People with intellectual disability who are ageing: Perceived needs assessment. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 17(1), 38–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2016.07.002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alzheimer’s Association. (2018). 2018 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s and Dementia, 14(3), 367–429.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.02.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alzheimer’s Association of Australia. (n.d.). Alzheimer’s and dementia in Australia. Retrieved from https://www.alz.org/au/dementia-alzheimers-australia.asp#symptoms
  4. Alzheimer's Association. (2017). Hallucinations, delusions and paranoia. Retrieved from https://www.alz.org/media/Documents/alzheimers-dementia-hallucinations-delusions-paranoia-ts.pdf
  5. American Psychiatric Association [APA]. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-III-R (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association [APA]. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aylward, E. H., Burt, D. B., Thorpe, L. U., Lai, F., & Dalton, A. (1997). Diagnosis of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 41(2), 152–164.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.1997.tb00692.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bahar-Fuchs, A., Clare, L., & Woods, B. (2013). Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for persons with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer’s or vascular type: A review. Alzheimer’s Research and Therapy, 5(4), 35.  https://doi.org/10.1186/alzrt189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ball, S. L., Holland, A. J., Watson, P. C., & Huppert, F. A. (2010). Theoretical exploration of the neural bases of behavioural disinhibition, apathy and executive dysfunction in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease in individuals with Down’s syndrome: Potential involvement of multiple frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities Research, 54(4), 320–336.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2010.01261.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baltes, P., Reese, H. W., & Lipsitt, L. P. (1980). Life-span developmental psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 65–110.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.31.020180.000433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baltes, P. B., & Graf, P. (1997). Psychology aspects of aging: Facts and frontiers. In D. Magnusson (Ed.), The lifespan development of individuals: Behavioral, neurobiological and psychosocial perspectives (pp. 427–460). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Baumbusch, J., Mayer, S., Phinney, A., & Baumbusch, S. (2017). Aging together: Caring relations in families of adults with intellectual disabilities. Gerontologist, 57(2), 341–347.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnv103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bayen, E., Possin, K. L., Chen, Y., Cleret de Langavant, L., & Yaffe, K. (2018). Prevalence of aging, dementia, and multimorbidity in older adults with Down syndrome. JAMA Neurology, 75(11), 1399–1406.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.2210CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Belleville, S., Clément, F., Mellah, S., Gilbert, B., Fontaine, F., & Gauthier, S. (2011). Training-related brain plasticity in subjects at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Brain, 134(6), 1623–1634.  https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awr037CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Belleville, S., Gilbert, B., Fontaine, F., Gagnon, L., Ménard, E., & Gauthier, S. (2006). Improvement of episodic memory in persons with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults: Evidence from a cognitive intervention program. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22(5–6), 486–499.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000096316CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bourgeois, M., Camp, C., Antenucci, V., & Fox, K. (2016). VoiceMyChoice™: Facilitating understanding of preferences of residents with dementia. Advances in Aging Research, 5(6), 131–141.  https://doi.org/10.4236/aar.2016.56013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bowman, L. (1996). Behavior modification and Down syndrome dementia: A case study of treatment in a ‘real life’ setting. Developmental Disabilities Bulletin, 24(2), 58–67.Google Scholar
  19. Brickman, A. M., & Stern, Y. (2009). Aging and memory in humans. In M. D. Binder, N. Hirokawa, & U. Windhorst (Eds.), Encyclopedia of neuroscience (Vol. 1, pp. 175–180). London, UK: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brodaty, H., Green, A., & Koschera, A. (2003). Meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for caregivers of people with dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(5), 657–664.  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0579.2003.00210.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Burt, D. B., & Aylward, E. H. (2000). Test battery for the diagnosis of dementia with intellectual disability: Working group for the establishment of criteria for the diagnosis of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 44(2), 175–180.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.2000.00264.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carter, D., & Rigby, A. (2017). Turning up the volume: Unheard voices of people with dementia. London, UK: Alzheimer Society. Retrieved from https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/2017-05/dementia-alzheimers-society-may-2017.pdfGoogle Scholar
  23. Clare, L. (2008). Neuropsychological rehabilitation and people with dementia. New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  24. Clare, L. (2017). Rehabilitation for people living with dementia: A practical framework of positive support. PLoS Medicine, 14(3), e1002245.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002245CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Clare, L., Wilson, B. A., Carter, G., & Hodges, J. R. (2003). Cognitive rehabilitation as a component of early intervention in Alzheimer’s disease: A single case study. Aging and Mental Health, 7(1), 15–21.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1360786021000045854CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cooper, S.-A., Melville, C. A., & Einfeld, S. L. (2003). Psychiatric diagnosis, intellectual disabilities and diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders for use with adults with learning disabilities/mental retardation (DC-LD). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(S1), 3–15.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.47.s1.2.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Corral, M., Rodrguez, M., Amenedo, E., Snchez, J. L., & Daz, F. (2006). Cognitive reserve, age, and neuropsychological performance in healthy participants. Developmental Neuropsychology, 29(3), 479–491.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326942dn2903_6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Corrigan, P. (2004). How stigma interferes with mental health care. American Psychologist, 59(7), 614–625.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.7.614CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cosgrave, M. P., Tyrrell, J., McCarron, M., Gill, M., & Lawlor, B. A. (2000). A five year follow-up study of dementia in persons with Down’s syndrome: Early symptoms and patterns of deterioration. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 17(1), 5–11.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0790966700003943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Deb, S., Hare, M., & Prior, L. (2007). Symptoms of dementia among adults with Down’s syndrome: A qualitative study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(9), 726–739.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2007.00956.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dementia Australia. (n.d.). Diagnosing dementia. Retrieved from https://www.dementia.org.au/information/diagnosing-dementia
  32. Devenny, D., Zimmerli, E. J., Kittler, P., & Krinsky-McHale, S. J. (2002). Cued recall in early-stage dementia in adults with Down’s syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46(6), 472–483.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.2002.00417.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Devenny, D. A., Hill, A. L., Patxot, O., Silverman, W. P., & Wisniewski, K. E. (1992). Ageing in higher functioning adults with Down’s syndrome: An interim report in a longitudinal study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 36(3), 241–250.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.1992.tb00511.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Esbensen, A. J. (2010). Health conditions associated with aging and end of life of adults with Down syndrome. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, 39(C), 107–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0074-7750(10)39004-5CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Evenhuis, H., Henderson, C. M., Beange, H., Lennox, N., & Chicoine, B. (2001). Healthy ageing – Adults with intellectual disabilities: Physical health issues. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 14(3), 175–194.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-3148.2001.00068.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Evenhuis, H. M. (1997). Medical aspects of ageing in a population with intellectual disability: III. Mobility, internal conditions and cancer. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 41(1), 8–18.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.1997.tb00672.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Evenhuis, H. M., Kengen, M. M. F., & Eurlings, H. A. L. (1990). Dementia questionnaire for mentally retarded persons. Zwanerdam, The Netherlands: Hooge Burch Institute for Mentally Retarded People.Google Scholar
  38. Fender, A., Marsden, L., & Starr, J. M. (2007). Assessing the health of older adults with intellectual disabilities: A user-led approach. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 11(3), 223–239.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629507080785CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fernández-Ballesteros, R., Zamarrón, M. D., Tárraga, L., Moya, R., & Iñiguez, J. (2003). Cognitive plasticity in healthy, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects and Alzheimer’s disease patients: A research project in Spain. European Psychologist, 8(3), 148–159.  https://doi.org/10.1027//1016-9040.8.3.148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Feuerstein, R. (2003). Feuerstein's theory of cognitive modifiability and mediated learning. In T. O. Seng, R. D. Parsons, S. L. Hinson, & D. S. Brown (Eds.), Educational psychology: A practitioner-researcher approach (pp. 59–60). Singapore, Singapore: Seng Lee.Google Scholar
  41. Feuerstein, R., & Rand, Y. (1974). Mediated learning experiences: An outline of the proximal etiology for differential development of cognitive functions. In L. Goldfien (Ed.), International understanding: Cultural differences in the development of cognitive processes (pp. 7–37). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  42. Fleischman, D. A., Wilson, R. S., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Bienias, J. L., & Bennett, D. A. (2004). A longitudinal study of implicit and explicit memory in old persons. Psychology and Aging, 19(4), 617–625.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.19.4.617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Floyd, M., & Scogin, F. (1997). Effects of memory training on the subjective memory functioning and mental health of older adults: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 12(1), 150–161.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.12.1.150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fonseca, L. M., Navatta, A. C., Bottino, C. M., & Miotto, E. C. (2015). Cognitive rehabilitation of dementia in adults with Down syndrome: A review of non-pharmacological interventions. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 5(3), 330–340.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000438858CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Fonseca, L. M., de Oliveira, M. C., de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto, L. M., Cavalheiro, E. A., & Bottino, C. M. (2014). Bereavement and behavioral changes as risk factors for cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 2209–2219. doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S68831.
  46. Friedland, R. P., Koss, E., Haxby, J. V., Grady, C. L., Luxenberg, J., Schapiro, M. B., & Kaye, J. (1988). Alzheimer’s disease in premorbidly normal persons with Down syndrome: Disconnection of neocortical brain regions. Annals of Internal Medicine, 109(4), 298–311.  https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-109-4-298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ghezzo, A., Salvioli, S., Solimando, M. C., Palmieri, A., Chiostergi, C., Scurti, M., … Franceschi, C. (2014). Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down syndrome. PLoS One, 9(11).  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113111
  48. Gilmore, L., & Cuskelly, M. (2014). Vulnerability to loneliness in people with intellectual disability: An explanatory model. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 11(3), 192–199.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jppi.12089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gold, M. W. (1980). Try another way: Training manual. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  50. Goldgaber, D., Lerman, M. I., McBride, O. W., Saffiotti, U., & Gajdusek, D. C. (1987). Characterization and chromosomal localization of a CDNA encoding brain amyloid of Alzheimer’s disease. Science, 235(4791), 877–880.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3810169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gopie, N., Craik, F. I., & Hasher, L. (2011). A double dissociation of implicit and explicit memory in younger and older adults. Psychological Science, 22(5), 634–640.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611403321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Grady, C. L., McIntosh, A. R., Beig, S., Keightley, M. L., Burian, H., & Black, S. E. (2003). Evidence from functional neuroimaging of a compensatory prefrontal network in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(3), 986–993.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-03-00986.2003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Guzmán-Vélez, E., Feinstein, J. S., & Tranel, D. (2014). Feelings without memory in Alzheimer disease. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 27(3), 117–129.  https://doi.org/10.1097/WNN.0000000000000020CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Hampstead, B. M., Sathian, K., Phillips, P. A., Amaraneni, A., Delaune, W. R., & Stringer, A. Y. (2012). Mnemonic strategy training improves memory for object location associations in both healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A randomized, single-blind study. Neuropsychology, 26(3), 385–399.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027545CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Harrison, B. E., Son, G., Kim, J., & Whall, A. L. (2007). Preserved implicit memory in dementia: A potential model for care. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 22(4), 286–293.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1533317507303761CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Haveman, M. J. (2004). Disease epidemiology and aging people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 1(1), 16–23.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-1130.2004.04003.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Haveman, M. J., Heller, T., Lee, L. A., Maaskant, M. A., Shooshtari, S., & Strydom, A. (2009). Report on the state of science on health risks and ageing in people with intellectual disabilities. Dortmund, Germany: IASSID Special Interest Research Group on Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities/Faculty Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Dortmund.Google Scholar
  58. Haveman, M. J., & Stöppler, R. (2004). Altern mit geistiger Behinderung: Grundlagen und Perspektiven für Begleitung, Bildung und Rehabilitation. Stuttgart, Germany: Kohlhammer Verlag.Google Scholar
  59. Haywood, H. C. (1998). On the transactional relation of cognitive and affective development. In J. M. Martinez, J. Lebeer, & R. Garbo (Eds.), Is intelligence modifiable? Madrid, Spain: Bruño.Google Scholar
  60. Haywood, H. C. (2006). A transactional perspective on mental retardation. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, 31, 289–314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0074-7750(05)31009-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Head, E., Lott, I. T., Patterson, D., Doran, E., & Haier, R. J. (2007). Possible compensatory events in adult Down syndrome brain prior to the development of Alzheimer disease neuropathology: Targets for nonpharmacological intervention. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 11(1), 61–76.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2007-11110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Heerema, E. (2018, November 12). Using reality orientation in Alzheimer’s and dementia: Strategies and cautions in its use. Retrieved from https://www.verywellhealth.com/treating-alzheimers-disease-with-reality-orientation-98682
  63. Heller, T. (2017). Service and support needs of adults aging with intellectual/developmental disabilities – Testimony to the U.S. Senate Committee on Aging Working and Aging with Disabilities: From school to retirement. Retrieved from https://www.aging.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/SCA_Heller_10_25_17.pdf
  64. Heller, T., Factor, A., Sterns, H., & Sutton, E. (1996). Impact of person centered later life planning training program for older adults with mental retardation. Journal of Rehabilitation, 62(1), 77–83.Google Scholar
  65. Heller, T., Miller, A. B., Hsieh, K., & Stern, H. (2000). Later-life planning: Promoting knowledge of options and choice-making. Mental Retardation, 38(5), 395–406.  https://doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765(2000)038<0395:LPPKOO>2.0.CO;2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Heller, T., Scott, H. M., & Janicki, M. (2018). Caregiving, intellectual disability, and dementia: Report of the Summit Workgroup on Caregiving and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 4, 272–282.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trci.2018.06.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Herault, Y., Delabar, J. M., Fisher, E. M. C., Tybulewicz, V. L. J., Yu, E., & Brault, V. (2017). Rodent models in Down syndrome research: Impact and future opportunities. Disease Models & Mechanisms, 10(10), 1165–1186.  https://doi.org/10.1242/dmm.029728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hithersay, R., Hamburg, S., Knight, B., & Strydom, A. (2017). Cognitive decline and dementia in Down syndrome. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 30(2), 102–107.  https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hithersay, R., Startin, C. M., Hamburg, S., Mok, K. Y., Hardy, J., Fisher, E. M. C., … Strydom, A. (2019). Association of dementia with mortality among adults with Down syndrome older than 35 years. JAMA Neurology, 76(2), 152–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hogg, J., Lucchino, R., Wang, K., & Janicki, M. (2001). Healthy ageing – Adults with intellectual disabilities: Ageing and social policy. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 14(3), 229–255.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-3148.2001.00067.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Horovitz, M., Kzlowski, A. M., & Matson, J. L. (2010). Compliance training in an adult with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type and Down syndrome. Clinical Case Studies, 9(2), 95–105.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650109357784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Humayun, H., & Yaom, J. (2019). Imaging the aged brain: Pertinence and methods. Quantitative Imaging Medicine and Surgery, 9(5), 842–857.  https://doi.org/10.21037/qims.2019.05.06CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Huxley, A., Van-Schaik, P., & Witts, P. (2005). A comparison of challenging behaviour in an adult group with Down’s syndrome and dementia compared with an adult Down’s syndrome group without dementia. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(4), 188–193.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3156.2005.00323.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jahoda, A., Jahoda, C. A., Melville, C., Pert, S. A., Lynn, H., Williams, C., & Davidson, C. (2015). A feasibility study of behavioural activation for depressive symptoms in adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 59(11), 1010–1021.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12175CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Janicki, M. P., & Dalton, A. J. (1998). Sensory impairments among older adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 23(1), 3–11.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13668259800033541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Janicki, M. P., Davidson, P. W., Henderson, C. M., McCallion, P., Taets, J. D., Force, L. T., … Ladrigan, P. M. (2002). Health characteristics and health services utilization in older adults with intellectual disability living in community residences. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46(4), 287–298.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.2002.00385.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Janicki, M. P., Heller, T., Seltzer, G., & Hogg, J. (1996). Practice guidelines for the clinical assessment and care management of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias among adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40(4), 374–382.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.1996.785785.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Janicki, M. P., & Wisniewski, H. M. (1985). Aging and developmental disabilities: Issues and approaches. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooke.Google Scholar
  79. Jokinen, N. S. (2016). Aging parents. In I. L. Rubin, J. Merrick, D. E. Greydanus, & D. R. Patel (Eds.), Health care for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities across the lifespan (pp. 79–84). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Judge, J., Walley, R., Anderson, B., & Young, R. (2010). Activity, aging, and retirement: The views of a group of Scottish people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 7(4), 295–301.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-1130.2010.00279.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kalsy, S., Heath, R., Adams, D., & Oliver, C. (2007). Effects of training on controllability attributions of behavioural excesses and deficits shown by adults with Down syndrome and dementia. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20(1), 64–68.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3148.2006.00341.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kanfush, P. M., & Jaffe, J. W. (2019). Using video modeling to teach a meal preparation task to individuals with a moderate intellectual disability. Education Research International, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1726719
  83. Katzman, R. (1993). Education and the prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 43(1), 13–20.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.43.1_Part_1.13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kawashima, R., Okita, K., Yamazaki, R., Tajima, N., Yoshida, H., Taira, M., … Sugimoto, K. (2005). Reading aloud and arithmetic calculation improve frontal function of people with dementia. Journals of Gerontology: Series A. Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 60(3), 380–384.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/60.3.380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kazui, H., Mori, E., Hashimoto, M., Hirono, N., Imamura, T., Tanimukai, S., … Cahill, L. (2000). Impact of emotion on memory controlled study of the influence of emotionally charged material on declarative memory in Alzheimer’s disease. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(4), 343–347.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.4.343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Klein, P. S. (1988). Stability and change in interaction of Israeli mothers and infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 11(1), 55–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383(88)80016-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Klein, P. S. (2003). Early intervention: Mediational intervention for sensitizing caregivers. In A.-S. Seng, L. K.-H. Pon, & O.-S. Tan (Eds.), Mediated learning experience with children: Applications across countries (pp. 68–84). Singapore, Singapore: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  88. Kogan, A. C., Wilber, K., & Mosqueda, L. (2016a). Moving toward implementation of person-centered care for older adults in community-based medical and social service settings: “You only get things done when working in concert with clients”. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 64(1), e8–e14.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kogan, A. C., Wilber, K., & Mosqueda, L. (2016b). Person-centered care for older adults with chronic conditions and functional impairment: A systematic literature review. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 64(1), e1–e7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Krinsky-McHale, S. J., Devenny, D. A., Gu, H., Jenkins, E. C., Kittler, P., Murty, V. V., … Silverman, W. (2008). Successful aging in a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome: A case study. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(3), 215–228.  https://doi.org/10.1352/2008.46:215-228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lazarus, S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  92. LeBlanc, L. A., Cherup, S. M., Feliciano, L., & Sidener, T. M. (2006). Using choice-making opportunities to increase activity engagement in individuals with dementia. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 21(5), 318–325.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1533317506292183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lifshitz, H. (2002a). Later life planning program: A pre-test assessment in Israel. Journal of Gerontology Social Work, 37(3–4), 87–103.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J083v37n03_07CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lifshitz, H. (2002b). Attitudes toward aging in adult and elderly people with intellectual disability. Educational Gerontology, 28(9), 745–759.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03601270290099912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lifshitz, H. (2014, March). Down syndrome: An integrated approach for an inclusive quality of life. Paper presented at the second conference of the Down Syndrome Policlinics and Parents’ Associations, University of Antwerp, Conference Centre Oud Sint-Jan, Bruges, Belgium.Google Scholar
  96. Lifshitz, H., & Klein, P. S. (2011). Mediation between staff and elderly persons with intellectual disability with Alzheimer disease as a means of enhancing their daily functioning. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46(1), 106–115.Google Scholar
  97. Lifshitz, H., Klein, P. S., & Fridel Cohen, S. (2010). Effects of MISC intervention on cognition, autonomy, and behavioral functioning of adult consumers with severe intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(4), 881–894.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2010.02.012CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lifshitz, H., & Merrick, J. (2004). Aging among persons with intellectual disability in Israel in relation to type of residence, age, and etiology. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 25(2), 193–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2003.05.002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Lifshitz, H., Merrick, J., & Morad, M. (2008). Health status and ADL functioning of older persons with intellectual disability: Community residence versus residential care centers. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 29(4), 301–315.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2007.06.005CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lifshitz-Vahav, H. (2015). Compensation Age Theory (CAT): Effect of chronological age on individuals with intellectual disability. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 50(2), 142–154.Google Scholar
  101. Luckasson, R., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Buntinx, W. H. E., Coulter, D. L., Craig, E. M., & Reeve, A. (2002). Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of support (10th ed.). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
  102. Luftig, R. L. (1987). Teaching the mentally retarded student: Curriculum methods and strategies. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  103. Mammarella, N., & Fairfield, B. (2014). Emotional working memory and Alzheimer’s disease. International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2014, 1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/207698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Matías-Guiua, J. A., Pérez-Martíneza, D. A., & Matías-Guiua, J. (2016). Pilot study of a new method of cognitive stimulation using abacus arithmetic in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly subjects. Neurología, 31(5), 326–331.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2015.02.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Diagnosing Alzheimer’s: How Alzheimer’s is diagnosed. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alzheimers-disease/in-depth/alzheimers/art-20048075
  106. McCallion, P., McCarron, M., & Force, L. T. (2005). A measure of subjective burden for dementia care: The Caregiving Difficulty Scale – Intellectual Disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(5), 365–371.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00670.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. McCarron, M., McCallion, P., Reilly, E., & Mulryan, N. (2014). A prospective 14-year longitudinal follow-up of dementia in persons with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 58(1), 61–70.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12074CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Merrick, J. (2017). Trends in the aging of persons with intellectual disability in residential care centers in Israel (Unpublished manuscript). Office Medical Director, Ministry of Social Affairs, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  109. Mesulam, M. M. (1999). Neuroplasticity failure in Alzheimer’s disease: Bridging the gap between plaques and tangles. Neuron, 24(3), 521–529.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(00)81109-5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Miller, S. C., Looze, J., Shield, R. R., Clark, M. A., Lepore, M., Tyler, D. A., & Mor, V. (2013). Culture change practice in U.S. nursing homes: State medicaid reimbursement policies and organizational attributes of practice implementers. Gerontologist, 54(3), 434–445.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnt020CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Naja, S., Makhlouf, M. M. E. D., & Chehab, M. A. H. (2017). An ageing world of the 21st century: A literature review. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, 4(12), 4363–4369.  https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20175306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pariente, J., Cole, S., Henson, R., Clare, L., Kennedy, A., Rossor, M., … Frackowiak, R. S. J. (2005). Alzheimer’s patients engage an alternative network during a memory task. Annals of Neurology, 58(6), 870–879.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.20653CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Pearlin, L. I., Mullan, J. T., Semple, S. J., & Skaff, M. M. (1990). Caregivers and stress process: An overview of concept sand their measures. Gerontologist, 30(5), 583–594.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/30.5.583CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Prasher, V. P., Farrer, M. J., Kessling, A. M., Fisher, E. M., West, R. J., Barber, P. C., & Butler, A. C. (1998). Molecular mapping of Alzheimer-type dementia in Down’s syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 43(3), 380–383.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410430316CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Reppermund, S., & Trollor, J. N. (2016). Successful ageing for people with an intellectual disability. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29(2), 149–154.  https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Roeden, J. M., & Zitman, F. G. (1994). Cognitieve, adaptieve en psychopathologische veranderingsprocessen bij oudere mensen met het syndroom van Down. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Zwakzinnigenzorg, I, 21–34.Google Scholar
  117. Rumble, B., Retallack, R., Hilbich, C., Simms, G., Multhaup, G., Martins, R., … Masters, C. L. (1989). Amyloid A4 protein and its precursor in Down’s syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 320(22), 1446–1452.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198906013202203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Scarmeas, N., & Stern, Y. (2003). Cognitive reserve and lifestyle. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurophysiology, 25(5), 625–633.  https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.25.5.625.14576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Schacter, D. L. (1987). Implicit memory: History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13(3), 501–518.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.13.3.501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Schalock, R. L. (1996). Reconsidering the conceptualization and measurement of quality of life. In R. L. Schalock & G. N. Siperstein (Eds.), Quality of life: Volume I. Conceptualization and measurement (pp. 123–129). Washington, DC: American Association of Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
  121. Schalock, R. L., Borthwick-Duff, S. A., Bradley, V., Buntix, W. H. E., Coulter, D. L., Craig, E. M., … Yeager, M. H. (2010). Intellectual disability: Definition, classification, and systems of supports (11th ed.). Washington, DC: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.Google Scholar
  122. Schalock, R. L., & Verdugo, M. A. (2013). The impact of the quality of life concept on the field of intellectual disability. In M. L. Wehmeyer (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of positive psychology and disability (pp. 37–47). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Schneider, J., Murray, J., Banerjee, S., & Mann, A. (1999). EUROCARE: A cross-national study of co-resident spouse carers for people with Alzheimer’s disease: I – Factors associated with carer burden. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(8), 651–661.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199908)14:8<651::AID-GPS992>3.0.CO;2-BCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Silverman, W. P., Zigman, W. B., Krinsky-Mchale, S. J., Ryan, R., & Schupf, N. (2013). Intellectual disability, mild cognitive impairment, and risk for dementia. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 10(3), 245–251.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jppi.12042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Simões, C., & Santos, S. (2016). Comparing the quality of life of adults with and without intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(4), 378–389.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12256CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sinai, A., Mokrysz, C., Bernal, J., Bohnen, I., Bonell, S., Courtenay, K., … Strydom, A. (2018). Predictors of age of diagnosis and survival of Alzheimer’s disease in down syndrome. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 61(2), 717–728.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170624CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Sörensen, S., Pinquart, M., & Duberstein, P. (2002). How effective are interventions with caregivers? An updated meta-analysis. Gerontologist, 42(3), 356–372.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/42.3.356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Spector, A., Davies, S., Woods, B., & Orrell, M. (2000). Reality orientation for dementia: A systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness from randomized controlled trials. Gerontologist, 40(2), 206–211.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/40.2.206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Sperling, R. A., Bates, J. F., Chua, E. F., Cocchiarella, A. J., Rentz, D. M., Rosen, B. R., … Albert, M. S. (2003). fMRI studies of associative encoding in young and elderly controls and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neurology. Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 74(1), 44–50.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.74.1.44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stern, Y. (2009). Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia, 47(10), 2015–2028.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.03.004CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Stern, Y. (2012). Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. The Lancet. Neurology, 11(11), 1006–1012.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70191-6CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Strydom, A., Dickinson, M. J., Shende, S., Pratico, D., & Walker, Z. (2009). Oxidative stress and cognitive ability in adults with Down syndrome. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 33(1), 76–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2008.10.006CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sutton, E., Heller, T., Sterns, H. L., Factor, A., & Miklos, S. (1993). Person-centered planning for later-life: A curriculum for adults with mental retardation. Akron, OH: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Aging with Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
  134. Temple, V., Jozsvai, E., Konstantareas, M. M., & Hewitt, T.-A. (2001). Alzheimer dementia in Down’s syndrome: The relevance of cognitive ability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45(1), 47–55.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2001.00299.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Urv, T. K., Zigman, W. B., & Silverman, W. (2008). Maladaptive behaviors related to dementia status in adults with Down syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 113(2), 73–86.  https://doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[73:MBRTDS]2.0.CO;2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. US Administration on Aging [AoA]. (2018). 2018 profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://acl.gov/sites/default/files/Aging%20and%20Disability%20in%20America/2018OlderAmericansProfile.pdfGoogle Scholar
  137. van Laake, M. (2006). Preparing adults with intellectual disabilities for later life: optimizing choice-making (Doctorate dissertation). Faculty Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Dortmund. Retrieved from https://eldorado.tu-dortmund.de/bitstream/2003/21521/1/DissertationvanLaakeneu.pdf
  138. van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M., van den Akker, M., Maaskant, M. A., Haveman, M. J., Urlings, H. F., Kessels, A. G., & Crebolder, H. F. (1997). Prevalence and incidence of health problems in people with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 41(1), 42–51.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.1997.tb00675.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Vogl, M., & Rapp, J. T. (2011). Differential reinforcement of other behavior and extinction to reduce loitering and stealing for an adult with an intellectual disability and dementia. Clinical Case Studies, 10(3), 229–235.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650111405188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Wiglesworth, A., & Mosqueda, L. (2009). People with dementia as witnesses to emotional events. Irvine, CA: University of California. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/234132.pdfGoogle Scholar
  142. Wilson, B. A. (1997). Cognitive rehabilitation: How it is and how it might be. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 3(5), 487–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wilson, B. A. (2005). The clinical neuropsychologist’s dilemma. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(4), 488–493.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617705050599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Wilson, R. S., Barnes, L. L., Aggarwal, N. T., Boyle, P. A., Hebert, L. E., Mendes de Leon, C. F., & Evans, D. A. (2010). Cognitive activity and the cognitive morbidity of Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 75(11), 990–996.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181f25b5eCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Wiseman, F. K., Al-Janabi, T., Hardy, J., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Nizetic, D., Tybulewicz, V. L., … Strydom, A. (2015). A genetic cause of Alzheimer disease: Mechanistic insights from Down syndrome. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 16(9), 564–574.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3983CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Wisniewski, K. E., Wisniewski, H. M., & Wen, G. Y. (1985). Occurrence of neuropathological changes and dementia of Alzheimer’s disease in Down’s syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 17(3), 278–282.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410170310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Wolfensberger, W. (2002). Social role valorization and, or versus, ‘empowerment’. Mental Retardation, 40(3), 252–258.  https://doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765(2002)040<0252:SRVAOV>2.0.CO;2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. World Health Organization [WHO]. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42407/9241545429.pdf?sequence=1Google Scholar
  149. World Health Organization [WHO]. (2013). How to use the ICF: A practical manual for using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) – Exposure draft for comment. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/classifications/drafticfpracticalmanual.pdfGoogle Scholar
  150. World Health Organization [WHO]. (2016). Definition of an older or elderly person. Retrieved from https://www.wcpt.org/node/47941
  151. World Health Organization [WHO]. (2018, February 5). Ageing and health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health
  152. Yu, H., Wang, X., He, R., Liang, R., & Zhou, L. (2015). Measuring the caregiver burden of caring for community-residing people with Alzheimer’s disease. PLoS One, 10(7).  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132168
  153. Zigman, W. B., Schupf, N., Devenny, D. A., Miezejeski, C., Ryan, R., Urv, T. K., … Silverman, W. (2004). Incidence and prevalence of dementia in elderly adults with mental retardation without Down syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 109(2), 126–141.  https://doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2004)109<126:IAPODI>2.0.CO;2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Zis, P., & Strydom, A. (2018). Clinical aspects and biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease in Down syndrome. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 114, 3–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.08.024CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hefziba Lifshitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Head of MA Program in Intellectual Disability, School of EducationBar-Ilan UniversityRamat GanIsrael

Personalised recommendations