Advertisement

PCMs in Separate Heat Storage Modules

  • Benjamin DurakovićEmail author
Chapter
  • 19 Downloads
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

This chapter provides a general classification of PCM-based heat storage modules as heat storage in solar collectors, heat bank, and interior air heaters and further discussion of recent results. It offers a review of solar collectors enhanced with PCMs and explains the working principles, PCM integration possibilities, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of specific solar collectors with PCMs. The flat plate solar collectors with PCMs collect solar energy and deliver hot water into industrial and domestic spaces at low cost and relatively easy manufacturing while achieving satisfactory improvements in thermal conditions. Unlike solar collectors, evacuated tube collectors with PCM did not have breakthrough studies. This can be due to their complexity, although the vacuum insulation and surface coating result in a lower heat loss compared to a flat plate collector. The research revealed the various design techniques that were applied to improve thermal efficiency of heat collectors, heat banks, and interior heat exchangers. That includes PCM encapsulation, thermal conductivity enhancement techniques, as well as various integration techniques within building environment with the latest research results that are introduced and discussed. All this is organized into one unit and adapted to users, researchers, students, and academic staff as well as those professionals who deal with the building physics.

References

  1. 1.
    Durakovic B, Torlak M (2017) Simulation and experimental validation of phase change material and water used as heat storage medium in window applications. J Mater Environ Sci 8(5):1837–1846Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mehling H, Cabeza LF (2008) Heat and cold storage with PCM: an up to date introduction into basics and applications. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    BINE Information Service. Concepts for building services technology. [Online]. Available: http://www.bine.info/en/publications/publikation/latentwaermespeicher-in-gebaeuden/pcm-konzepte-fuer-die-gebaeudetechnik/. Accessed 16 Feb 2014
  4. 4.
    Farid MM, Khudhair AM, Razack SAK, Al-Hallaj S (2004) A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications. Energy Convers Manag 45(9–10):1597–1615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kissock J, Kelly J, Hannig M, Thomas I (1998) Testing and simulation of phase change wallboard for thermal storage in buildings. In: Proceedings of international solar energy conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 14–17 June 1998Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khan MMA, Ibrahim NI, Mahbubul I, Ali HM, Saidur R, Al-Sulaiman FA (2018) Evaluation of solar collector designs with integrated latent heat thermal energy storage: a review. Sol Energy 166:334–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Durakovic B, Torlak M (2017) Experimental and numerical study of a PCM window model as a thermal energy storage unit. Int J Low-Carbon Technol 12(3):272–280Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Durakovic B, Yildiz G, Yahia ME (2020) Comparative performance evaluation of conventional and renewable thermal insulation materials used in building envelops. Tehnicki vjesnik - Tech Gaz 27(1) (in Press)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bouadila S, Fteïti M, Oueslati MM, Guizani A, Farhat A (2014) Enhancement of latent heat storage in a rectangular cavity: solar water heater case study. Energy Convers Manag 78:904–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin S, Al-Kayiem H, Bin Aris M (2012) Experimental investigation on the performance enhancement of integrated PCM-flat plate solar collector. J Appl Sci 12(23):2390–2396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee WS, Chen BR, Chen SL (2006) Latent heat storage in a two-phase thermosyphon solar water heater. J Solar Energy Eng 128(1):69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khalifa AJN, Suffer KH, Mahmoud MS (2013) A storage domestic solar hot water system with a back layer of phase change material. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 44:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Serale G, Baronetto S, Goia F, Perino M (2014) Characterization and energy performance of a slurry PCM-based solar thermal collector: a numerical analysis. In: International conference on solar heating and cooling for buildings and industry, Freiburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gao Y, Zhang Q, Fan R, Lin X, Yu Y (2013) Effects of thermal mass and flow rate on forced-circulation solar hot-water system: comparison of water-in-glass and U-pipe evacuated-tube solar collectors. Solar Energy 98:290–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Riffat S, Jiang L, Zhu J, Gan G (2006) Experimental investigation of energy storage for an evacuated solar collector. Int J Low-Carbon Technol 1(2):139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Naghavi M, Ong KS, Badruddin IA, Mehrali M, Silakhori M, Metselaar HSC (2015) Theoretical model of an evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector integrated with phase change material. Energy 91:911–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mehla N, Yadav A (2015) Experimental analysis of thermal performance of evacuated tube solar air collector with phase change material for sunshine and off-sunshine hours. Int J Ambient Energy 38(2):130–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Papadimitratos A, Sobhansarbandi S, Pozdina V, Zakhidovc A, Hassanipour F (2016) Evacuated tube solar collectors integrated with phase change materials. Sol Energy 129:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Feliński P, Sekret R (2016) Experimental study of evacuated tube collector/storage system containing paraffin as a PCM. Energy 114:1063–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Makki A, Omer S, Sabir H (2015) Advancements in hybrid photovoltaic systems for enhanced solar cells performance. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 41:658–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hasan A, McCormack S, Huang M, Norton B (2010) Evaluation of phase change materials for thermal regulation enhancement of building integrated photovoltaics. Sol Energy 84(9):1601–1612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huang M, Eames P, Norton B (2004) Thermal regulation of building-integrated photovoltaics using phase change materials. Int J Heat Mass Transf 47(12–13):2715–2733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Malvi CS, Dixon-Hardy DW, Crook R (2011) Energy balance model of combined photovoltaic solar-thermal system incorporating phase change material. Sol Energy 85(7):1440–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Su D, Jia Y, Alva G, Liu L, Fang G (2017) Comparative analyses on dynamic performances of photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors integrated with phase change materials. Energy Convers Manag 131(1):79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hasan A, McCormack S, Huang M, Sarwar J, Norton B (2015) Increased photovoltaic performance through temperature regulation by phase change materials: materials comparison in different climates. Sol Energy 115:264–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Regin AF, Solanki S, Saini J (2008) Heat transfer characteristics of thermal energy storage system using PCM capsules: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 12(9):2438–2458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zayed ME, Zhao J, Elsheikh AH, Hammad FA, Ma L, Du Y, Kabeel A, Shalaby S (2019) Applications of cascaded phase change materials in solar water collector storage tanks: a review. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells 199:24–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mahfuz M, Anisur M, Kibria M, Saidur R, Metselaar I (2014) Performance investigation of thermal energy storage system with phase change material (PCM) for solar water heating application. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 57:132–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shirinbakhsh M, Mirkhani N, Sajadi B (2018) A comprehensive study on the effect of hot water demand and PCM integration on the performance of SDHW system. Solar Energy 159:405–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Agyenim F, Hewitt N, Eames P, Smyth M (2010) A review of materials, heat transfer and phase change problem formulation for latent heat thermal energy storage systems (LHTESS). Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14(2):615–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shukla R, Sumathy K, Erickson P, Gong J (2013) Recent advances in the solar water heating systems: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 19:173–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Horbaniuca B, Dumitrascu G, Popescu A (1999) Mathematical models for the study of solidification within a longitudinally finned heat pipe latent heat thermal storage system. Energy Convers Manag 40(15–16):1765–1774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Agyenim F, Eames P, Mervyn S (2009) A comparison of heat transfer enhancement in a medium temperature thermal energy storage heat exchanger using fins. Sol Energy 83(9):1509–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Papanicolaou E, Belessiontis V (2001) Transient natural convection in a cylindrical enclosure at high Rayleigh numbers. Heat Mass Transf 45(7):1425–1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Silva PD, Gonçalves L, Pires L (2002) Transient behaviour of a latent-heat thermal energy store: numerical and experimental studies. Appl Energy 73(1):83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zivkovic B, Fujii I (2001) An analysis of isothermal phase change material within rectangular and cylindrical containers. Sol Energy 70(1):51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lin Y, Alva G, Fang G (2018) Review on thermal performances and applications of thermal energy storage systems with inorganic phase change materials. Energy 165(Part A):685–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wu M, Xu C, He Y-L (2014) Dynamic thermal performance analysis of a molten-salt packed-bed thermal energy storage system using PCM capsules. Appl Energy 121:184–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Muñoz-Sánchez B, Iparraguirre-Torres I, Madina-Arrese V, Izagirre-Etxeberria U, Unzurrunzaga-Iturbe A, García-Romero A (2015) Encapsulated high temperature PCM as active filler material in a thermocline-based thermal storage system. Energy Procedia 69:937–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cardenas B, Leon N (2013) High temperature latent heat thermal energy storage: phase change materials, design considerations and performance enhancement techniques. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 27:724–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Qureshi ZA, Ali HM, Khushnood S (2018) Recent advances on thermal conductivity enhancement of phase change materials for energy storage system: a review. Int J Heat Mass Transf 127(Part C):838–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sari A, Karaipekli A (2007) Thermal conductivity and latent heat thermal energy storage characteristics of paraffin/expanded graphite composite as phase change material. Appl Therm Eng 27(8–9):1271–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ceng J, Sun L, Xu F, Tan Z, Zhang T (2005) Study of a PCM based storage system containing metal nanoparticles. In: 4th international and 6th Japan-China joint symposium on calorimetry and thermal analysis, JapanGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shin D, Banerjee D (2009) Investigation of nanofluids for solar thermal storage applications. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2009 3rd international conference of energy sustainability, San Francisco, California, USA, pp 819–822Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Saw C, Al-Kayiem H, Owolabi A (2013) Experimental investigation on the effect of PCM and nano-enhanced PCM of integrated solar collector performance. In: WIT transactions on ecology and the environment. WIT Press, UK, pp 899–909Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ma Z, Lin W, Sohel M (2016) Nano-enhanced phase change materials for improved building performance. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 58:1256–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dincer I, Rosen M (2010) Thermal energy storage: systems and applications. 2nd edn. Wiley, West SussexGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sharma A, Tyagi VV, Chen CR, Buddhi D (2009) Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13(2):318–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Souayfane F, Fardoun F, Biwole P-H (2016) Phase change materials (PCM) for cooling applications in buildings: a review. Energy Build 129:396–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zalba B, Marı́n JM, Cabeza LF, Mehling H (2004) Free-cooling of buildings with phase change materials. Int J Refrig 27(8):839–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Waqas A, Din ZU (2013) Phase change material (PCM) storage for free cooling of buildings—a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 18:607–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lee K, Medina M, Raith E, Sun X (2015) Assessing the integration of a thin phase change material (PCM) layer in a residential building wall for heat transfer reduction and management. Appl Energy 137:699–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Osterman E, Butala V, Stritih U (2015) PCM thermal storage system for ‘free’ heating and cooling of buildings. Energy Build 106:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yanbing K, Yi J, Yinping Z (2003) Modeling and experimental study on an innovative passive cooling system—NVP system. Energy Build 35(4):417–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nagano K, Takeda S, Mochida T, Shimakura K, Nakamura T (2006) Study of a floor supply air conditioning system using granular phase change material to augment building mass thermal storage—heat response in small scale experiments. Energy Build 38(5):436–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Takeda S, Nagano K, Mochida T, Shimakura K (2004) Development of a ventilation system utilizing thermal energy storage for granules containing phase change material. Sol Energy 77(3):329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chiu JNW, Gravoille P, Martin V (2013) Active free cooling optimization with thermal energy storage in Stockholm. Appl Energy 109:523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Henning H-M (2007) Solar assisted air conditioning of buildings—an overview. Appl Therm Eng 27(10):1734–1749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Helm M, Hagel K, Pfeffer W, Hiebler S, Schweigler C (2014) Solar heating and cooling system with absorption chiller and latent heat storage—a research project summary. Energy Procedia 48:837–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gil A, Oró E, Miró L, Peiró G, Ruiz Á, Salmerón JM, Cabeza LF (2014) Experimental analysis of hydroquinone used as phase change material (PCM) to be applied in solar cooling refrigeration. Int J Refrig 39:95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Belmonte J, Izquierdo-Barrientos M, Eguía P, Molina A, Almendros-Ibáñez J (2014) PCM in the heat rejection loops of absorption chillers. A feasibility study for the residential sector in Spain. Energy Build 80:331–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Naganao K (2007) Development of the PCM floor supply air-conditioning system. In: Paksoy HÖ (ed) Thermal energy storage for sustainable energy consumption, vol 234. NATO science series (mathematics, physics and chemistry). Springer, Dordrecht, pp 367–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Takeda S, Nagano K, Mochida T, Shimakura K (2004) Development of a ventilation system utilizing thermal energy storage for granules containing phase change material. Solar Energy 77:329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Arkar C, Medved S (2007) Free cooling of a building using PCM heat storage integrated into the ventilation system. Solar Energy 81:1078–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lazaro A, Dolado P, Marín J, Zalba B (2009) PCM-air heat exchangers for free-cooling applications in buildings: experimental results of two real-scale prototypes. Energy Convers Manag 50(3):439–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Torlak M, Delalić N, Durakovic B, Gavranović H (2014) CFD-based assessment of thermal energy storage in phase-change materials—(PCM). In: International energy technologies conference proceedings 2014—ENTECH’2014, Istanbul, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rouault F, Bruneau D, Sebastian P, Lopez J (2013) Numerical modelling of tube bundle thermal energy storage for free-cooling of buildings. Appl Energy 111:1099–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Duraković B, Mešetović S (2019) Thermal performances of glazed energy storage systems with various storage materials: an experimental study. Sustain Cities Soc 45:422–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Darzi CA, Moosania S, Tan F, Farhadi M (2013) Numerical investigation of free-cooling system using plate type PCM storage. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 48:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Anisur CM, Kibria M, Mahfuz M, Saidur R, Metselaar I (2014) Cooling of air using heptadecane phase change material in shell and tube arrangement: analytical and experimental study. Energy Build 85:98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tan G, Zhao D (2015) Study of a thermoelectric space cooling system integrated with phase change material. Appl Therm Eng 86:187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chiu J, Gravoille P, Martin V (2013) Active free cooling optimization with thermal energy storage in Stockholm. Appl Energy 109:523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and Natural SciencesInternational University of SarajevoSarajevoBosnia and Herzegovina

Personalised recommendations