Risk and Protective Factors for Delinquency

  • Tom D. Kennedy
  • David Detullio
  • Danielle H. Millen
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)


Research from 2008 to 2018 related to risk and protective factors for juvenile delinquency was reviewed to provide an update on the relevance of various factors. Based on the review, some important factors that are consistently related to increased delinquent behaviors include substance use, trauma, delinquent peers, and neighborhood characteristics. The reviewed research also identified many moderators and mediators for risk factors (e.g., genes), indicating that delinquency is unlikely to be predicted with variables from one domain. Within the searched timeframe, research on variables that decrease the likelihood of delinquency (i.e., protective factors) was limited when compared to the research examining risk factors. Nonetheless, familial and neighborhood factors were observed to have protective effects. Some of the methodological characteristics that could clarify conflicting findings between studies were explored, however all reviewed studies could not be contrasted with one another. Therefore, the original references may be consulted to supplement the conclusions drawn here. Lastly, we attempted to incorporate all the relevant research from the searched timeframe into this chapter, but it is possible that some references were overlooked or excluded.


Delinquency Risk factors Protective factors 


  1. Adams, Z. W., McCart, M. R., Zajac, K., Danielson, C. K., Sawyer, G. K., Saunders, B. E., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2013). Psychiatric problems and trauma exposure in nondetained delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42(3), 323–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aebi, M., Barra, S., Bessler, C., Steinhausen, H. C., Walitza, S., & Plattner, B. (2016). Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions and subtypes among detained male adolescent offenders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(6), 729–736.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Aebi, M., Linhart, S., Thun-Hohenstein, L., Bessler, C., Steinhausen, H. C., & Plattner, B. (2015). Detained male adolescent offender’s emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment profiles and their associations to psychiatric disorders and criminal behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(5), 999–1009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Aghajani, M., Klapwijk, E. T., van der Wee, N. J., Veer, I. M., Rombouts, S. A., Boon, A. E., … Colins, O. F. (2017). Disorganized amygdala networks in conduct-disordered juvenile offenders with callous-unemotional traits. Biological Psychiatry, 82(4), 283–293.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Aiyer, S. M., Williams, J. L., Tolan, P. H., & Wilson, M. N. (2013). Predicting desistance in a high-risk sample: Examining the influence of individual and contextual factors. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(4), 408–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. American Psychological Association (2005). Brief for the American Psychological Association, and the Missouri Psychological Association as amici curiae supporting respondent, Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (no. 03-633). Retrieved from
  8. American Psychological Association (2010). Brief for the American Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, National Association of Social Workers, and Mental Health America as amici curiae supporting petitioners, Graham v. Florida & Sullivan v. Florida, 560 US 48 (no. 08-7412, 08-7621). Retrieved from
  9. Åslund, C., Comasco, E., Nordquist, N., Leppert, J., Oreland, L., & Nilsson, K. W. (2013). Self-reported family socioeconomic status, the 5-HTTLPR genotype, and delinquent behavior in a community-based adolescent population. Aggressive Behavior, 39(1), 52–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Åslund, C., Nordquist, N., Comasco, E., Leppert, J., Oreland, L., & Nilsson, K. W. (2011). Maltreatment, MAOA, and delinquency: Sex differences in gene–environment interaction in a large population-based cohort of adolescents. Behavior Genetics, 41(2), 262–272.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Asscher, J. J., van der Put, C. E., & Stams, G. J. J. (2012). Differences between juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability in offense type and risk factors. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), 1905–1913.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Asscher, J. J., van Vugt, E. S., Stams, G. J. J., Deković, M., Eichelsheim, V. I., & Yousfi, S. (2011). The relationship between juvenile psychopathic traits, delinquency and (violent) recidivism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(11), 1134–1143.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Asscher, J. J., Wissink, I. B., Deković, M., Prinzie, P., & Stams, G. J. J. (2014). Delinquent behavior, poor relationship quality with parents, and involvement with deviant peers in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents: Different processes, informant bias, or both? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 58(9), 1001–1019.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Piquero, A. R., DeLisi, M., & Vaughn, M. G. (2017). Multiple pathways to juvenile recidivism: Examining parental drug and mental health problems, and markers of neuropsychological deficits among serious juvenile offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 44(8), 1009–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baker, C. K., Hishinuma, E. S., Chang, J. Y., & Nixon, D. C. (2010). The relationship among exposure to stressful life events, drug use, and violence perpetration in a sample of native Hawaiian, Samoan, and Filipino adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(3), 379–399.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Bao, Z., Li, D., Zhang, W., & Wang, Y. (2015). School climate and delinquency among Chinese adolescents: Analyses of effortful control as a moderator and deviant peer affiliation as a mediator. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(1), 81–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Barker, E. D., Tremblay, R. E., van Lier, P. A., Vitaro, F., Nagin, D. S., Assaad, J. M., & Seguin, J. R. (2011). The neurocognition of conduct disorder behaviors: Specificity to physical aggression and theft after controlling for ADHD symptoms. Aggressive Behavior, 37(1), 63–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Barnes, J. C., & Jacobs, B. A. (2013). Genetic risk for violent behavior and environmental exposure to disadvantage and violent crime: The case for gene–environment interaction. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(1), 92–120.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Barr, S. C., Hanson, R., Begle, A. M., Kilpatrick, D. G., Saunders, B., Resnick, H., & Amstadter, A. (2012). Examining the moderating role of family cohesion on the relationship between witnessed community violence and delinquency in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(2), 239–262.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Barrett, D. E., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D., & Zhang, D. (2014). Delinquency and recidivism: A multicohort, matched-control study of the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 22(1), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Baskin, D., & Sommers, I. (2014). Exposure to community violence and trajectories of violent offending. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 12(4), 367–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baskin-Sommers, A. R., & Baskin, D. (2016). Psychopathic traits mediate the relationship between exposure to violence and violent juvenile offending. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38(3), 341–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Baskin-Sommers, A. R., Baskin, D. R., Sommers, I., Casados, A. T., Crossman, M. K., & Javdani, S. (2016). The impact of psychopathology, race, and environmental context on violent offending in a male adolescent sample. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 7(4), 354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Beaver, K. M. (2011). Environmental moderators of genetic influences on adolescent delinquent involvement and victimization. Journal of Adolescent Research, 26(1), 84–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Becker, S. J., Nargiso, J. E., Wolff, J. C., Uhl, K. M., Simon, V. A., Spirito, A., & Prinstein, M. J. (2012). Temporal relationship between substance use and delinquent behavior among young psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 43(2), 251–259.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Becker, S. P., & Kerig, P. K. (2011). Posttraumatic stress symptoms are associated with the frequency and severity of delinquency among detained boys. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(5), 765–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Beier, H. (2014). Peer effects in offending behaviour across contexts: Disentangling selection, opportunity and learning processes. European Journal of Criminology, 11(1), 73–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 885.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Bender, K. (2012). The mediating effect of school engagement in the relationship between youth maltreatment and juvenile delinquency. Children & Schools, 34(1), 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bendezú, J. J., Pinderhughes, E. E., Hurley, S. M., McMahon, R. J., & Racz, S. J. (2018). Longitudinal relations among parental monitoring strategies, knowledge, and adolescent delinquency in a racially diverse at-risk sample. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47, S21–S34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Farrington, D. (2008). The statistical association between drug misuse and crime: A meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(2), 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bernasco, W., Ruiter, S., Bruinsma, G. J., Pauwels, L. J., & Weerman, F. M. (2013). Situational causes of offending: A fixed-effects analysis of space–time budget data. Criminology, 51(4), 895–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bernat, D. H., Oakes, J. M., Pettingell, S. L., & Resnick, M. (2012). Risk and direct protective factors for youth violence: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(2), S57–S66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Boardman, J. D., Menard, S., Roettger, M. E., Knight, K. E., Boutwell, B. B., & Smolen, A. (2014). Genes in the dopaminergic system and delinquent behaviors across the life course: The role of social controls and risks. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41(6), 713–731.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Boccio, C. M., Beaver, K. M., & Schwartz, J. A. (2018). The role of verbal intelligence in becoming a successful criminal: Results from a longitudinal sample. Intelligence, 66, 24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Boisvert, D., Vaske, J., Wright, J. P., & Knopik, V. (2012). Sex differences in criminal behavior: A genetic analysis. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 28(3), 293–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Borrani, J., Frías, M., Ortiz, X., García, A., & Valdez, P. (2015). Analysis of cognitive inhibition and flexibility in juvenile delinquents. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 26(1), 60–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Braga, T., Gonçalves, L. C., Basto-Pereira, M., & Maia, Â. (2017). Unraveling the link between maltreatment and juvenile antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis of prospective longitudinal studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33, 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101(4), 568–586.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Bruce, E., & Waelde, L. C. (2008). Relationships of ethnicity, ethnic identity, and trauma symptoms to delinquency. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 13(5), 395–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bussing, R., Mason, D. M., Bell, L., Porter, P., & Garvan, C. (2010). Adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a diverse community sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(6), 595–605.Google Scholar
  42. Carlo, G., Mestre, M. V., McGinley, M. M., Tur-Porcar, A., Samper, P., & Opal, D. (2014). The protective role of prosocial behaviors on antisocial behaviors: The mediating effects of deviant peer affiliation. Journal of Adolescence, 37(4), 359–366.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Carney, T., Myers, B. J., Louw, J., Lombard, C., & Flisher, A. J. (2013). The relationship between substance use and delinquency among high-school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Adolescence, 36(3), 447–455.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Cauffman, E., Skeem, J., Dmitrieva, J., & Cavanagh, C. (2016). Comparing the stability of psychopathy scores in adolescents versus adults: How often is “fledgling psychopathy” misdiagnosed? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 22(1), 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cavanagh, C., & Cauffman, E. (2017). The longitudinal association of relationship quality and reoffending among first-time juvenile offenders and their mothers. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(7), 1533–1546.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Chabrol, H., Rodgers, R. F., Sobolewski, G., & van Leeuwen, N. (2010). Cannabis use and delinquent behaviors in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 35(3), 263–265.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Chabrol, H., & Saint-Martin, C. (2009). Cannabis use and delinquent behaviors in high-school students. Addictive Behaviors, 34(2), 187–189.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Chauhan, P., Reppucci, N. D., & Turkheimer, E. N. (2009). Racial differences in the associations of neighborhood disadvantage, exposure to violence, and criminal recidivism among female juvenile offenders. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 27(4), 531–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Chen, C., Zhou, J., Liu, C., Witt, K., Zhang, Y., Jing, B., … Li, L. (2015). Regional homogeneity of resting-state brain abnormalities in violent juvenile offenders: A biomarker of brain immaturity? The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 27(1), 27–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Chen, P., & Jacobson, K. C. (2013). Impulsivity moderates promotive environmental influences on adolescent delinquency: A comparison across family, school, and neighborhood contexts. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(7), 1133–1143.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Chen, P., Voisin, D. R., & Jacobson, K. C. (2016). Community violence exposure and adolescent delinquency: Examining a spectrum of promotive factors. Youth & Society, 48(1), 33–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Chhangur, R. R., Overbeek, G., Verhagen, M., Weeland, J., Matthys, W., & Engels, R. C. (2015). DRD4 and DRD2 genes, parenting, and adolescent delinquency: Longitudinal evidence for a gene by environment interaction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(4), 791–802.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Coker, K. L., Smith, P. H., Westphal, A., Zonana, H. V., & McKee, S. A. (2014). Crime and psychiatric disorders among youth in the US population: An analysis of the national comorbidity survey–adolescent supplement. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(8), 888–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Colins, O. F. (2016). The clinical usefulness of the DSM–5 specifier for conduct disorder outside of a research context. Law and Human Behavior, 40(3), 310–318.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Colins, O. F., & Andershed, H. (2015). The DSM-5 with limited prosocial emotions specifier for conduct disorder among detained girls. Law and Human Behavior, 39(2), 198–207.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Connolly, E. J., & Beaver, K. M. (2014). Examining the genetic and environmental influences on self-control and delinquency: Results from a genetically informative analysis of sibling pairs. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(4), 707–735.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Craig, J. M. (2016). Which bond matters more? Assessing the differential strengths of parental bonding measures on adolescent delinquency over time. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 14(3), 225–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cropsey, K. L., Weaver, M. F., & Dupre, M. A. (2008). Predictors of involvement in the juvenile justice system among psychiatric hospitalized adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 33(7), 942–948.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. D’amico, E. J., Tucker, J. S., Miles, J. N., Ewing, B. A., Shih, R. A., & Pedersen, E. R. (2016). Alcohol and marijuana use trajectories in a diverse longitudinal sample of adolescents: Examining use patterns from age 11 to 17 years. Addiction, 111(10), 1825–1835.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. DeLisi, M., Fox, B. H., Fully, M., & Vaughn, M. G. (2018). The effects of temperament, psychopathy, and childhood trauma among delinquent youth: A test of DeLisi and Vaughn's temperament-based theory of crime. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 57, 53–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. DeLisi, M., Piquero, A. R., & Cardwell, S. M. (2016). The unpredictability of murder: Juvenile homicide in the pathways to desistance study. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 14(1), 26–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dembo, R., & Sullivan, C. (2009). Cocaine use and delinquent behavior among high-risk youths: A growth model of parallel processes. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 18(3), 274–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Deutsch, A. R., Crockett, L. J., Wolff, J. M., & Russell, S. T. (2012). Parent and peer pathways to adolescent delinquency: Variations by ethnicity and neighborhood context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(8), 1078–1094.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Díaz, R., Goti, J., García, M., Gual, A., Serrano, L., González, L., … Castro-Fornieles, J. (2011). Patterns of substance use in adolescents attending a mental health department. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 20(6), 279–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dolan, M. C., & Rennie, C. E. (2008). The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth as a predictor of recidivism in a United Kingdom cohort of adolescent offenders with conduct disorder. Psychological Assessment, 20(1), 35–46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Douglas, K. S., Epstein, M. E., & Poythress, N. G. (2008). Criminal recidivism among juvenile offenders: Testing the incremental and predictive validity of three measures of psychopathic features. Law and Human Behavior, 32(5), 423–438.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Drazdowski, T. K., Jäggi, L., Borre, A., & Kliewer, W. L. (2015). Use of prescription drugs and future delinquency among adolescent offenders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 48(1), 28–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Drukker, M., Kaplan, C. D., Feron, F. J., Van Os, J., & Korebrits, A. (2010). Delinquency in context; neighbourhood and gender interactions among adolescents. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 19(2), 148–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Duke, N. N., Pettingell, S. L., McMorris, B. J., & Borowsky, I. W. (2010). Adolescent violence perpetration: Associations with multiple types of adverse childhood experiences. Pediatrics, 125(4), e778–e786.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Dynes, M. E., Domoff, S. E., Hassan, S., Tompsett, C. J., & Amrhein, K. E. (2015). The influence of co-offending within a moderated mediation model of parent and peer predictors of delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(12), 3516–3525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Eaton, N. R., Krueger, R. F., Johnson, W., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2009). Parental monitoring, personality, and delinquency: Further support for a reconceptualization of monitoring. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(1), 49–59.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Edens, J. F., Skopp, N. A., & Cahill, M. A. (2008). Psychopathic features moderate the relationship between harsh and inconsistent parental discipline and adolescent antisocial behavior. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(2), 472–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ehrenreich, H., Nahapetyan, L., Orpinas, P., & Song, X. (2015). Marijuana use from middle to high school: Co-occurring problem behaviors, teacher-rated academic skills and sixth-grade predictors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(10), 1929–1940.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Eklund, J. M., & af Klinteberg, B. (2009). Alcohol use and patterns of delinquent behaviour in male and female adolescents. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 44(6), 607–614.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Eklund, J. M., & Fritzell, J. (2014). Keeping delinquency at bay: The role of the school context for impulsive and sensation-seeking adolescents. European Journal of Criminology, 11(6), 682–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Elkington, K. S., Teplin, L. A., Abram, K. M., Jakubowski, J. A., Dulcan, M. K., & Welty, L. J. (2015). Psychiatric disorders and violence: A study of delinquent youth after detention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(4), 302–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Enns, R. A., Reddon, J. R., Das, J. P., & Boudreau, A. (2008). Measuring executive functions in female delinquents using the Cognitive Assessment System. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 47(1-2), 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Farhat, T., Simons-Morton, B., & Luk, J. W. (2011). Psychosocial correlates of adolescent marijuana use: Variations by status of marijuana use. Addictive Behaviors, 36(4), 404–407.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Farrell, A. D., Henry, D. B., Mays, S. A., & Schoeny, M. E. (2011). Parents as moderators of the impact of school norms and peer influences on aggression in middle school students. Child Development, 82(1), 146–161.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Farrell, A. D., Thompson, E. L., & Mehari, K. R. (2017). Dimensions of peer influences and their relationship to adolescents’ aggression, other problem behaviors and prosocial behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(6), 1351–1369.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Farrell, C., & Zimmerman, G. M. (2017). Does offending intensify as exposure to violence aggregates? Reconsidering the effects of repeat victimization, types of exposure to violence, and poly-victimization on property crime, violent offending, and substance use. Journal of Criminal Justice, 53, 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., & Piquero, A. R. (2016). Risk, promotive, and protective factors in youth offending: Results from the Cambridge study in delinquent development. Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Felson, R., Savolainen, J., Aaltonen, M., & Moustgaard, H. (2008). Is the association between alcohol use and delinquency causal or spurious? Criminology, 46(3), 785–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Felson, R. B., Teasdale, B., & Burchfield, K. B. (2008). The influence of being under the influence: Alcohol effects on adolescent violence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 45(2), 119–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fine, A., Mahler, A., Simmons, C., Chen, C., Moyzis, R., & Cauffman, E. (2016). Relations between three dopaminergic system genes, school attachment, and adolescent delinquency. Developmental Psychology, 52(11), 1893.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Fite, P. J., Wynn, P., & Pardini, D. A. (2009). Explaining discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(5), 916–927.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Fontaine, N. M., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., & Tremblay, R. E. (2016). Compensatory and protective factors against violent delinquency in late adolescence: Results from the Montreal longitudinal and experimental study. Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 54–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ford, J. A. (2008). Nonmedical prescription drug use and delinquency: An analysis with a national sample. Journal of Drug Issues, 38(2), 493–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Forth, A., Kosson, D., & Hare, R. (2003). Psychopathy Checklist: Youth version. Toronto, Canada: MHS.Google Scholar
  90. Frey, A., Ruchkin, V., Martin, A., & Schwab-Stone, M. (2009). Adolescents in transition: School and family characteristics in the development of violent behaviors entering high school. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40(1), 1–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Frick, P. J., Ray, J. V., Thornton, L. C., & Kahn, R. E. (2014). Can callous-unemotional traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review. Psychological Bulletin, 140(1), 1–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Gatti, U., Soellner, R., Bräker, A. B., Verde, A., & Rocca, G. (2015). Delinquency and alcohol use among adolescents in Europe: The role of cultural contexts. European Journal of Criminology, 12(3), 362–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gault-Sherman, M. (2012). It’s a two-way street: The bidirectional relationship between parenting and delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(2), 121–145.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. González, R. A., Kallis, C., Ullrich, S., Zhang, T., & Coid, J. W. (2014). The protective role of higher intellectual functioning on violence in the household population of Great Britain. Personality and Individual Differences, 61, 80–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gordon, J. A., Diehl, R. L., & Anderson, L. (2012). Does ADHD matter? Examining attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder on the likelihood of recidivism among detained youth. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 51(8), 497–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Griffith-Lendering, M. F. H., Huijbregts, S. C., Mooijaart, A., Vollebergh, W. A. M., & Swaab, H. (2011). Cannabis use and development of externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems in early adolescence: A TRAILS study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 116(1-3), 11–17.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Grunwald, H. E., Lockwood, B., Harris, P. W., & Mennis, J. (2010). Influences of neighborhood context, individual history and parenting behavior on recidivism among juvenile offenders. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(9), 1067–1079.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Gudjonsson, G. H., Sigurdsson, J. F., Adalsteinsson, T. F., & Young, S. (2013). The relationship between ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and self-reported offending. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(4), 339–346.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Halgunseth, L. C., Perkins, D. F., Lippold, M. A., & Nix, R. L. (2013). Delinquent-oriented attitudes mediate the relation between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(2), 293.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Harris-McKoy, D. (2016). Adolescent delinquency: Is too much or too little parental control a problem? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(7), 2079–2088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Harrison, P. J., & Weinberger, D. R. (2005). Schizophrenia genes, gene expression, and neuropathology: On the matter of their convergence. Molecular Psychiatry, 10(1), 40–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Hartinger-Saunders, R. M., Rine, C. M., Nochajski, T., & Wieczorek, W. (2012). Neighborhood crime and perception of safety as predictors of victimization and offending among youth: A call for macro-level prevention and intervention models. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(9), 1966–1973.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Hay, C., Meldrum, R. C., Widdowson, A. O., & Piquero, A. R. (2017). Early aggression and later delinquency: Considering the redirecting role of good parenting. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 15(4), 374–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A., Scholes-Balog, K. E., Smith, R., Herrenkohl, T. I., Toumbourou, J. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2014). Reassessing the effects of early adolescent alcohol use on later antisocial behavior: A longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 34(3), 360–386.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Henneberger, A. K., Tolan, P. H., Hipwell, A. E., & Keenan, K. (2014). Delinquency in adolescent girls: Using a confluence approach to understand the influences of parents and peers. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41(11), 1327–1337.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Henry, D. B., Tolan, P. H., Gorman-Smith, D., & Schoeny, M. E. (2012). Risk and direct protective factors for youth violence: Results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Multisite Violence Prevention Project. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(2), S67–S75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Henry, K. L., Knight, K. E., & Thornberry, T. P. (2012). School disengagement as a predictor of dropout, delinquency, and problem substance use during adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(2), 156–166.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Herrenkohl, T. I., Lee, J., & Hawkins, J. D. (2012). Risk versus direct protective factors and youth violence: Seattle Social Development Project. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(2), S41–S56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Higgins, J. P. T., & Green, S. (Eds). (2011). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (Version 5.1.0). Retrieved from
  110. Hirschfield, P. J., & Gasper, J. (2011). The relationship between school engagement and delinquency in late childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(1), 3–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Hodgins, S., Barbareschi, G., & Larsson, A. (2011). Adolescents with conduct disorder: Does anxiety make a difference? Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 22(5), 669–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hoeve, M., McReynolds, L. S., & Wasserman, G. A. (2014). Service referral for juvenile justice youths: Associations with psychiatric disorder and recidivism. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 41(3), 379–389.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Hoeve, M., McReynolds, L. S., Wasserman, G. A., & McMillan, C. (2013). The influence of mental health disorders on severity of reoffending in juveniles. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(3), 289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Hoeve, M., Stams, G. J. J., Van der Put, C. E., Dubas, J. S., Van der Laan, P. H., & Gerris, J. R. (2012). A meta-analysis of attachment to parents and delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(5), 771–785.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Hoffmann, J. P., & Dufur, M. J. (2008). Family and school capital effects on delinquency: Substitutes or complements? Sociological Perspectives, 51(1), 29–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hsieh, H. F., Zimmerman, M. A., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., Xue, Y., Wang, Z., & Hou, Y. (2016). Cumulative risks and promotive factors for Chinese adolescent problem behaviors. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 43, 71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Huang, C. C., Vikse, J. H., Lu, S., & Yi, S. (2015). Children’s exposure to intimate partner violence and early delinquency. Journal of Family Violence, 30(8), 953–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Huang, H., Ryan, J. P., & Rhoden, M. A. (2016). Foster care, geographic neighborhood change, and the risk of delinquency. Children and Youth Services Review, 65, 32–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Hunter, S. B., Miles, J. N., Pedersen, E. R., Ewing, B. A., & D’Amico, E. J. (2014). Temporal associations between substance use and delinquency among youth with a first time offense. Addictive Behaviors, 39(6), 1081–1086.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Indig, D., Frewen, A., & Moore, E. (2016). Predictors and correlates of re-incarceration among Australian young people in custody. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 49(1), 73–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Janssen, H. J., Eichelsheim, V. I., Deković, M., & Bruinsma, G. J. (2016). How is parenting related to adolescent delinquency? A between-and within-person analysis of the mediating role of self-control, delinquent attitudes, peer delinquency, and time spent in criminogenic settings. European Journal of Criminology, 13(2), 169–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Jezior, K. L., McKenzie, M. E., & Lee, S. S. (2016). Narcissism and callous-unemotional traits prospectively predict child conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 45(5), 579–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Johnson, M. E. (2018). Trauma, race, and risk for violent felony arrests among Florida juvenile offenders. Crime & Delinquency, 64(11), 1437–1457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kang, H. K., & Burton, D. L. (2014). Effects of racial discrimination, childhood trauma, and trauma symptoms on juvenile delinquency in African American incarcerated youth. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 23(10), 1109–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kennedy, T. D., Burnett, K. F., & Edmonds, W. A. (2011). Intellectual, behavioral, and personality correlates of violent vs. non‐violent juvenile offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 37(4), 315–325.Google Scholar
  126. Kennedy, T. D., Edmonds, W. A., Millen, D. H., & Detullio, D. (2019). Chronic juvenile offenders: Exploring risk factor models of recidivism. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 17(2), 174–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kerr, M., Zalk, M., & Stattin, H. (2012). Psychopathic traits moderate peer influence on adolescent delinquency. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(8), 826–835.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Kim, H. W., Cho, S. C., Kim, B. N., Kim, J. W., Shin, M. S., & Yeo, J. Y. (2010). Does oppositional defiant disorder have temperament and psychopathological profiles independent of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(4), 412–418.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Kimonis, E. R., Kennealy, P. J., & Goulter, N. (2016). Does the self-report inventory of callous-unemotional traits predict recidivism? Psychological Assessment, 28(12), 1616–1624.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Klapwijk, E. T., Lelieveld, G. J., Aghajani, M., Boon, A. E., van der Wee, N. J., Popma, A., … Colins, O. F. (2016). Fairness decisions in response to emotions: A functional MRI study among criminal justice-involved boys with conduct disorder. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(4), 674–682.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Lahlah, E., Van der Knaap, L. M., Bogaerts, S., & Lens, K. M. (2014). Ethnic differences in the effect of perceived parenting on juvenile violent delinquency of Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch boys. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(2), 333–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Lanza, H. I., & Taylor, R. D. (2010). Parenting in moderation: Family routine moderates the relation between school disengagement and delinquent behaviors among African American adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(4), 540–547.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). Changes in neighborhood poverty from 1990 to 2000 and youth's problem behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 47(6), 1680.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., Bigler, E. D., & Tranel, D. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment (5th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Lightowlers, C., & Sumnall, H. (2014). A violent mix? The association between concurrent alcohol and cocaine use and violence amongst young people in England and Wales. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 21(2), 131–139.Google Scholar
  136. Liljeberg, J. F., Eklund, J. M., Fritz, M. V., & af Klinteberg, B. (2011). Poor school bonding and delinquency over time: Bidirectional effects and sex differences. Journal of Adolescence, 34(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lodewijks, H. P., de Ruiter, C., & Doreleijers, T. A. (2010). The impact of protective factors in desistance from violent reoffending: A study in three samples of adolescent offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(3), 568–587.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Loeber, R., Menting, B., Lynam, D. R., Moffitt, T. E., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Stallings, R., … Pardini, D. (2012). Findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study: Cognitive impulsivity and intelligence as predictors of the age–crime curve. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(11), 1136–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Logan-Greene, P., & Jones, A. S. (2015). Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination. Child Abuse & Neglect, 45, 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Lopez, C. M., Andrews, A. R., III, Chisolm, A. M., de Arellano, M. A., Saunders, B., & Kilpatrick, D. (2017). Racial/ethnic differences in trauma exposure and mental health disorders in adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 23(3), 382–387.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Lopez-Leon, M., & Rosner, R. (2010). Intellectual quotient of juveniles evaluated in a forensic psychiatry clinic after committing a violent crime. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55(1), 229–231.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Lount, S. A., Purdy, S. C., & Hand, L. (2017). Hearing, auditory processing, and language skills of male youth offenders and remandees in youth justice residences in New Zealand. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60(1), 121–135.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Lowe, N. C., May, D. C., & Elrod, P. (2008). Theoretical predictors of delinquency among public school students in a mid-southern state: The roles of context and gender. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6(4), 343–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mallett, C. A., Fukushima, M., Stoddard-Dare, P., & Quinn, L. (2013). Factors related to recidivism for youthful offenders. Criminal Justice Studies, 26(1), 84–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Mancha, B. E., Rojas-Neese, V. C., & Latimer, W. W. (2010). Alcohol use problem severity and problem behavior engagement among school-based youths in Minnesota. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 19(3), 210–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Mancha, B. E., Rojas, V. C., & Latimer, W. W. (2012). Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico. Alcohol, 46(7), 695–701.Google Scholar
  147. Mann, F. D., Patterson, M. W., Grotzinger, A. D., Kretsch, N., Tackett, J. L., Tucker-Drob, E. M., & Harden, K. P. (2016). Sensation seeking, peer deviance, and genetic influences on adolescent delinquency: Evidence for person-environment correlation and interaction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(5), 679–691.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Margaret Hayes, J., & Reilly, G. O. (2013). Psychiatric disorder, IQ, and emotional intelligence among adolescent detainees: A comparative study. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 18(1), 30–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Marotta, P. L., & Voisin, D. R. (2017). Testing three pathways to substance use and delinquency among low-income African American adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review, 75, 7–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Maschi, T., Bradley, C. A., & Morgen, K. (2008). Unraveling the link between trauma and delinquency: The mediating role of negative affect and delinquent peer exposure. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6(2), 136–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. McCloskey, G., & Perkins, L. A. (2013). Essentials of executive functions assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  152. McMahon, R. J., Witkiewitz, K., & Kotler, J. S. (2010). Predictive validity of callous–unemotional traits measured in early adolescence with respect to multiple antisocial outcomes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(4), 752–763.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Mears, D. P., & Cochran, J. C. (2013). What is the effect of IQ on offending? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(11), 1280–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Meier, M. H., Slutske, W. S., Arndt, S., & Cadoret, R. J. (2008). Impulsive and callous traits are more strongly associated with delinquent behavior in higher risk neighborhoods among boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(2), 377.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Meldrum, R. C., Trucco, E. M., Cope, L. M., Zucker, R. A., & Heitzeg, M. M. (2018). Brain activity, low self-control, and delinquency: An fMRI study of at-risk adolescents. Journal of Criminal Justice, 56, 107–117.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Menting, B., Van Lier, P. A., Koot, H. M., Pardini, D., & Loeber, R. (2016). Cognitive impulsivity and the development of delinquency from late childhood to early adulthood: Moderating effects of parenting behavior and peer relationships. Development and Psychopathology, 28(1), 167–183.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. Mercado-Crespo, M. C., & Mbah, A. K. (2013). Race and ethnicity, substance use, and physical aggression among US high school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(7), 1367–1384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2019). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2018: Volume I, secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan. Retrieved from: Scholar
  159. Miller, P. G., Butler, E., Richardson, B., Staiger, P. K., Youssef, G. J., Macdonald, J. A., … Olsson, C. A. (2016). Relationships between problematic alcohol consumption and delinquent behaviour from adolescence to young adulthood. Drug and Alcohol Review, 35(3), 317–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Miura, H., & Fuchigami, Y. (2017). Impaired executive function in 14-to 16-year-old boys with conduct disorder is related to recidivism: A prospective longitudinal study. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 27(2), 136–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Molnar, B. E., Cerda, M., Roberts, A. L., & Buka, S. L. (2008). Effects of neighborhood resources on aggressive and delinquent behaviors among urban youths. American Journal of Public Health, 98(6), 1086–1093.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. Monahan, K. C., Rhew, I. C., Hawkins, J. D., & Brown, E. C. (2014). Adolescent pathways to co-occurring problem behavior: The effects of peer delinquency and peer substance use. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(4), 630–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Mõttus, R., Guljajev, J., Allik, J., Laidra, K., & Pullmann, H. (2012). Longitudinal associations of cognitive ability, personality traits and school grades with antisocial behaviour. European Journal of Personality, 26(1), 56–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Muftić, L. R., & Updegrove, A. H. (2018). The mediating effect of self-control on parenting and delinquency: A gendered approach with a multinational sample. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 62(10), 3058–3076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Muñoz, L. C., Pakalniskiene, V., & Frick, P. J. (2011). Parental monitoring and youth behavior problems: Moderation by callous-unemotional traits over time. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 20(5), 261–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Nilsson, K. W., Comasco, E., Hodgins, S., Oreland, L., & Åslund, C. (2015). Genotypes do not confer risk for delinquency but rather alter susceptibility to positive and negative environmental factors: Gene-environment interactions of BDNF Val66Met, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA-uVNTR. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 18(5), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Nordvall, O., Neely, A. S., & Jonsson, B. (2017). Self-reported impulsivity and its relation to executive functions in interned youth. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 24(6), 910–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Norström, T., & Rossow, I. (2014). Cannabis use and violence: Is there a link? Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 42(4), 358–363.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. Odgers, C. L., Moffitt, T. E., Tach, L. M., Sampson, R. J., Taylor, A., Matthews, C. L., & Caspi, A. (2009). The protective effects of neighborhood collective efficacy on British children growing up in deprivation: A developmental analysis. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 942–957.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Pardini, D. A., & Fite, P. J. (2010). Symptoms of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and callous-unemotional traits as unique predictors of psychosocial maladjustment in boys: Advancing an evidence base for DSM-V. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(11), 1134–1144.Google Scholar
  171. Patrick, C. J., Fowles, D. C., & Krueger, R. F. (2009). Triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy: Developmental origins of disinhibition, boldness, and meanness. Development and Psychopathology, 21(3), 913–938.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Pechorro, P., Nunes, C., Jiménez, L., & Hidalgo, V. (2015). Incarcerated youths with high or low callous–unemotional traits: A comparison controlling for age of crime onset. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 26(1), 78–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Pechorro, P., Ray, J. V., GonÇalves, R. A., & Jesus, S. N. (2017). The Inventory of Callous–Unemotional Traits: Psychometric properties among referred and non-referred Portuguese female juveniles. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 54, 67–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Pedersen, W., & Skardhamar, T. (2010). Cannabis and crime: Findings from a longitudinal study. Addiction, 105(1), 109–118.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. Plattner, B., Giger, J., Bachmann, F., Brühwiler, K., Steiner, H., Steinhausen, H. C., … Aebi, M. (2012). Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles. Psychiatry Research, 198(2), 285–290.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. Plattner, B., Steiner, H., The, S. S., Kraemer, H. C., Bauer, S. M., Kindler, J., … Feucht, M. (2009). Sex-specific predictors of criminal recidivism in a representative sample of incarcerated youth. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50(5), 400–407.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Plomin, R., & Spinath, F. M. (2004). Intelligence: Genetics, genes, and genomics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(1), 112.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. Posick, C., & Gould, L. A. (2015). On the general relationship between victimization and offending: Examining cultural contingencies. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Ray, J. V., Frick, P. J., Thornton, L. C., Wall Myers, T. D., Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E. (2017). Callous–unemotional traits predict self-reported offending in adolescent boys: The mediating role of delinquent peers and the moderating role of parenting practices. Developmental Psychology, 53(2), 319–328.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. Reich, W. A. (2014). Mental health screening outcomes among justice-involved youths under community supervision. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 53(3), 211–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Reid, R. J., Garcia-Reid, P., Klein, E., & McDougall, A. (2008). Violence-related behaviors among Dominican adolescents: Examining the influence of alcohol and marijuana use. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 7(4), 404–427.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. Reyes, H. L. M., Foshee, V. A., Bauer, D. J., & Ennett, S. T. (2014). Proximal and time-varying effects of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and other hard drug use on adolescent dating aggression. Journal of Adolescence, 37(3), 281–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Reynolds, A. D., & Crea, T. M. (2015). Peer influence processes for youth delinquency and depression. Journal of Adolescence, 43, 83–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Robertson, E. L., Frick, P. J., Ray, J. V., Thornton, L. C., Wall Myers, T. D., Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E. (2018). The associations among callous-unemotional traits, worry, and aggression in justice-involved adolescent boys. Clinical Psychological Science, 6(5), 671–684.Google Scholar
  185. Ruchkin, V., Lorberg, B., Koposov, R., Schwab-Stone, M., & Sukhodolsky, D. G. (2008). ADHD symptoms and associated psychopathology in a community sample of adolescents from the European north of Russia. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12(1), 54–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. Ryan, J. P., Williams, A. B., & Courtney, M. E. (2013). Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(3), 454–465.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. Sabatine, E., Lippold, M., & Kainz, K. (2017). The unique and interactive effects of parent and school bonds on adolescent delinquency. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 53, 54–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. Salekin, R. T., Lee, Z., Schrum Dillard, C. L., & Kubak, F. A. (2010). Child psychopathy and protective factors: IQ and motivation to change. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(2), 158–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (2012). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence. In D. P. Flanagan & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (3rd ed., pp. 99–144). New York, NY: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  190. Scholes-Balog, K. E., Hemphill, S. A., Kremer, P., & Toumbourou, J. W. (2013). A longitudinal study of the reciprocal effects of alcohol use and interpersonal violence among Australian young people. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(12), 1811–1823.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. Schroeder, R. D., & Mowen, T. J. (2014). Parenting style transitions and delinquency. Youth & Society, 46(2), 228–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Scott, T., & Brown, S. L. (2018). Risks, strengths, gender, and recidivism among justice-involved youth: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(11), 931–945.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Shepherd, S. M., Luebbers, S., & Ogloff, J. R. (2016). The role of protective factors and the relationship with recidivism for high-risk young people in detention. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(7), 863–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Sibley, M. H., Pelham, W. E., Molina, B. S., Gnagy, E. M., Waschbusch, D. A., Biswas, A., … Karch, K. M. (2011). The delinquency outcomes of boys with ADHD with and without comorbidity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(1), 21–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. Silverman, J. R., & Caldwell, R. M. (2008). Peer relationships and violence among female juvenile offenders: An exploration of differences among four racial/ethnic populations. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(3), 333–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Sittner Hartshorn, K. J., Whitbeck, L. B., & Prentice, P. (2015). Substance use disorders, comorbidity, and arrest among Indigenous adolescents. Crime & Delinquency, 61(10), 1311–1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Skeem, J. L., & Cooke, D. J. (2010). Is criminal behavior a central component of psychopathy? Conceptual directions for resolving the debate. Psychological Assessment, 22(2), 433–445.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Snyder, J. J., Schrepferman, L. P., Bullard, L., McEachern, A. D., & Patterson, G. R. (2012). Covert antisocial behavior, peer deviancy training, parenting processes, and sex differences in the development of antisocial behavior during childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 24(3), 1117–1138.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Snyder, S. M., & Smith, R. E. (2015). The influence of school engagement on counts of delinquent behaviors among maltreated youths. Children & Schools, 37(4), 199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Sorge, G. B., Skilling, T. A., & Toplak, M. E. (2015). Intelligence, executive functions, and decision making as predictors of antisocial behavior in an adolescent sample of justice-involved youth and a community comparison group. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 28(5), 477–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Stewart, E. A., & Simons, R. L. (2010). Race, code of the street, and violent delinquency: A multilevel investigation of neighborhood street culture and individual norms of violence. Criminology, 48(2), 569–605.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. Stewart, S. L., Baiden, P., den Dunnen, W., Hirdes, J. P., & Perlman, C. M. (2015). Prevalence and correlates of criminal activity in adolescents treated in adult inpatient mental health beds in Ontario, Canada. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 14(1), 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Stimmel, M. A., Cruise, K. R., Ford, J. D., & Weiss, R. A. (2014). Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology, and aggression in male juvenile offenders. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(2), 184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Temple, J. R., Shorey, R. C., Fite, P., Stuart, G. L., & Le, V. D. (2013). Substance use as a longitudinal predictor of the perpetration of teen dating violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(4), 596–606.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. Tompsett, C. J., Amrhein, K. E., & Hassan, S. (2014). Travel beyond the home neighborhood for delinquent behaviors: Moderation of home neighborhood influences. Journal of Adolescence, 37(4), 325–333.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P., Piquero, A. R., Lösel, F., DeLisi, M., & Murray, J. (2016). Intelligence as a protective factor against offending: A meta-analytic review of prospective longitudinal studies. Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 4–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., Finkelhor, D., & Hamby, S. (2016). Polyvictimization and youth violence exposure across contexts. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(2), 208–214.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  208. Turner, R., Daneback, K., & Skårner, A. (2018). Assessing reciprocal association between drunkenness, drug use, and delinquency during adolescence: Separating within-and between-person Effects. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 191, 286–293.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. Unal, H., & Cukur, C. S. (2011). The effects of school bonds, discipline techniques in school and victimization on delinquency of high school students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 11(2), 560–570.Google Scholar
  210. Valdimarsdottir, M., & Bernburg, J. G. (2015). Community disadvantage, parental network, and commitment to social norms: Multilevel study of self-reported delinquency in Iceland. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52(2), 213–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Van Damme, L., Colins, O. F., & Vanderplasschen, W. (2016). The limited prosocial emotions specifier for conduct disorder among detained girls: A multi-informant approach. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(6), 778–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Van der Graaff, J., Branje, S., De Wied, M., & Meeus, W. (2012). The moderating role of empathy in the association between parental support and adolescent aggressive and delinquent behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 38(5), 368–377.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  213. Van Der Laan, A. M., Blom, M., & Kleemans, E. R. (2009). Exploring long-term and short-term risk factors for serious delinquency. European Journal of Criminology, 6(5), 419–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Van Der Put, C. E., Asscher, J. J., & Stams, G. J. J. (2016). Differences between juvenile offenders with and without AD(H)D in recidivism rates and risk and protective factors for recidivism. Journal of Attention Disorders, 20(5), 445–457.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. van der Put, C. E., Asscher, J. J., Stams, G. J. J. M., & Moonen, X. M. H. (2014). Differences between juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disabilities in the importance of static and dynamic risk factors for recidivism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 58(11), 992–1003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  216. van der Put, C. E., & De Ruiter, C. (2016). Child maltreatment victimization by type in relation to criminal recidivism in juvenile offenders. BMC Psychiatry, 16(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Vaughn, M. G., DeLisi, M., Beaver, K. M., & Wright, J. P. (2009). DAT1 and 5HTT are associated with pathological criminal behavior in a nationally representative sample of youth. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36(11), 1113–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Vidourek, R. A., King, K. A., Merianos, A. L., & Bartsch, L. A. (2016). Risk factors for legal involvement among a nationally representative sample of Hispanic adolescents. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 11(2), 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Vilalta, C. J., & Allmang, S. (2017). Assessing the role of context on the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and property crimes in Mexico. Substance Use & Misuse, 52(2), 152–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Vitacco, M. J., Neumann, C. S., & Caldwell, M. F. (2010). Predicting antisocial behavior in high-risk male adolescents: Contributions of psychopathy and instrumental violence. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(8), 833–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Vitulano, M. L., Fite, P. J., & Rathert, J. L. (2010). Delinquent peer influence on childhood delinquency: The moderating effect of impulsivity. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(3), 315–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Vogel, M., & South, S. J. (2016). Spatial dimensions of the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on delinquency. Criminology, 54(3), 434–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Vogel, M., & Van Ham, M. (2018). Unpacking the relationships between impulsivity, neighborhood disadvantage, and adolescent violence: An application of a neighborhood-based group decomposition. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(4), 859–871.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  224. Walters, G. D. (2018a). Does drug use inhibit crime deceleration or does crime inhibit drug use deceleration? A test of the reciprocal risk postulate of the worst of both worlds hypothesis. Substance Use & Misuse, 53(10), 1681–1687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Walters, G. D. (2018b). Mediating the relationship between parental control/support and offspring delinquency: Self-efficacy for a conventional lifestyle versus self-efficacy for deviance. Crime & Delinquency, 64(5), 606–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Walters, G. D. (2018c). Resistance to peer influence and crime desistance in emerging adulthood: A moderated mediation analysis. Law and Human Behavior, 42(6), 520–530.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  227. Walther, C. A., Cheong, J., Molina, B. S., Pelham, W. E., Jr., Wymbs, B. T., Belendiuk, K. A., & Pedersen, S. L. (2012). Substance use and delinquency among adolescents with childhood ADHD: The protective role of parenting. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26(3), 585–598.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  228. Wang, P., Niv, S., Tuvblad, C., Raine, A., & Baker, L. A. (2013). The genetic and environmental overlap between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior in children and adolescents using the self-report delinquency interview (SR-DI). Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(5), 277–284.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  229. Watts, S. J., & McNulty, T. L. (2015). Delinquent peers and offending: Integrating social learning and biosocial theory. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 13(2), 190–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Weerman, F. M., & Hoeve, M. (2012). Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: Are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors? European Journal of Criminology, 9(3), 228–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Werner, S. S., Hart, K. J., & Ficke, S. L. (2016). Intelligence score profiles of female juvenile offenders. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34(3), 296–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. White, H. R., Fite, P., Pardini, D., Mun, E. Y., & Loeber, R. (2013). Moderators of the dynamic link between alcohol use and aggressive behavior among adolescent males. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(2), 211–222.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. Wibbelink, C. J., Hoeve, M., Stams, G. J. J., & Oort, F. J. (2017). A meta-analysis of the association between mental disorders and juvenile recidivism. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33, 78–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Wong, T. M., Loeber, R., Slotboom, A. M., Bijleveld, C. C., Hipwell, A. E., Stepp, S. D., & Koot, H. M. (2013). Sex and age differences in the risk threshold for delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(4), 641–652.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. Worthen, M. G. F. (2012). Gender differences in delinquency in early, middle, and late adolescence: An exploration of parent and friend relationships. Deviant Behavior, 33(4), 282–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Wylie, L. E., & Rufino, K. A. (2018). The impact of victimization and mental health symptoms on recidivism for early system-involved juvenile offenders. Law and Human Behavior, 42(6), 558–569.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. Xue, Y., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. (2009). Relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among urban African American youths from adolescence to emerging adulthood: A longitudinal study. American Journal of Public Health, 99(11), 2041–2048.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  238. Yampolskaya, S., & Chuang, E. (2012). Effects of mental health disorders on the risk of juvenile justice system involvement and recidivism among children placed in out-of-home care. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(4), 585–593.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  239. Yoo, J. A. (2017). Effect of child gender on the bidirectional relationships between parental monitoring and delinquent behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(12), 3452–3463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. You, S., & Lim, S. A. (2015). Development pathways from abusive parenting to delinquency: The mediating role of depression and aggression. Child Abuse & Neglect, 46, 152–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Young, S., Misch, P., Collins, P., & Gudjonsson, G. (2011). Predictors of institutional behavioural disturbance and offending in the community among young offenders. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 22(1), 72–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Yun, I., & Lee, J. (2013). IQ and delinquency: The differential detection hypothesis revisited. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 11(3), 196–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Yun, M., Kim, E., & Park, W. S. (2017). A test of an integrative model using social factors and personality traits: Prediction on the delinquency of South Korean youth. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(11), 1262–1287.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. Zimmerman, G. M., Farrell, C., & Posick, C. (2017). Does the strength of the victim-offender overlap depend on the relationship between the victim and perpetrator? Journal of Criminal Justice, 48, 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Zimmerman, G. M., & Messner, S. F. (2011). Neighborhood context and nonlinear peer effects on adolescent violent crime. Criminology, 49(3), 873–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Zinzow, H. M., Ruggiero, K. J., Hanson, R. F., Smith, D. W., Saunders, B. E., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2009). Witnessed community and parental violence in relation to substance use and delinquency in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(6), 525–533.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  247. Zou, Z., Meng, H., Ma, Z., Deng, W., Du, L., Wang, H., … Hu, H. (2013). Executive functioning deficits and childhood trauma in juvenile violent offenders in China. Psychiatry Research, 207(3), 218–224.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom D. Kennedy
    • 1
  • David Detullio
    • 1
  • Danielle H. Millen
    • 1
  1. 1.Nova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA

Personalised recommendations