The Information Cycle and Biological Information Management

  • John Torday
  • William Miller Jr.


The self-referential appraisal of information characterizes cells of all types whether they are prokaryotic bacteria or individual eukaryotic cells (Shapiro 2011; Trewavas and Baluška 2011; Miller 2013). Plainly then, the manner in which cellular organisms retrieve, assess, and deploy information to maintain homeostasis or to communicate with other organisms unites the organizational structure that exists among all living organisms (Trewavas and Baluška 2011; Gamow 1955). It follows that these are linked and complex actions which require systematic ordering. Plainly then, any such ordering function must be under the control of a form of systematic information management. Every aspect of cellular life is directed toward information assessment and cell–cell communications to support homeostatic equipoise. It can be asserted that the exquisite coordination that cells exhibit in these tasks requires the presence of an information management apparatus (Miller 2017; Miller et al. 2019).


Thermodynamic Information cycle Effective information Biofilm C-value enigma Cellular problem-solving Pervasive information field Zygote Transposable elements Endogenous retroviruses 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Torday
    • 1
  • William Miller Jr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Deptartment of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and GynecologyHarbor–UCLA Medical CenterTorranceUSA
  2. 2.Physician/Independent researcherBanner Health/J.C.Lincoln Health SystemsParadise ValleyUSA

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