Advertisement

Improving Engagement During Times of Change

  • Melissa A. Norcross
  • Patrick Farran
Chapter
  • 51 Downloads
Part of the Management for Professionals book series (MANAGPROF)

Abstract

The vast majority of change initiatives fail to meet their objectives and most decimate their organization’s levels of engagement in the process. The effect of plummeting employee engagement during turbulent times creates a downward spiral that can result in permanent damage to the organizational culture and capabilities. This phenomenon has led some to believe that change can only be achieved at the cost of employee engagement and that engagement can only be improved during periods of stability. Our work suggests that this is a false dichotomy. Through careful planning and active management, some organizations utilize these times of change to deploy strength-based, positive approaches to successfully deliver their change agenda while simultaneously cultivating greater work meaningfulness and engagement. In this chapter, we examine a case study that demonstrates, through the use of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) as one such approach, how taking on aggressive change initiatives in this manner can be leveraged as an opportunity for widescale reinvention of the organization, enabling greater work meaningfulness, engagement, and flourishing.

Keywords

Organizational change Appreciative inquiry Work meaningfulness Inspiration Workforce engagement 

References

  1. Allan, B. A., Duffy, R. D., & Collisson, B. (2018). Task significance and performance. Journal of Career Assessment, 26(1), 172–182.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072716680047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. An, D., & Youn, N. (2018). The inspirational power of arts on creativity. Journal of Business Research, 85, 467–475.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.10.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashforth, B. E., & Kreiner, G. E. (1999). “How can you do it?”: Dirty work and the challenge of constructing a positive identity. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 413–434.  https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1999.2202129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Crossley, C. D., & Luthans, F. (2009). Psychological ownership: Theoretical extensions, measurement and relation to work outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(2), 173–191.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey, C., & Madden, A. (2016). What makes work meaningful–or meaningless? MIT Sloan Review, Summer 2016. Retrieved from http://mitsmr.com/22yGae8
  6. Bailey, C., Yeoman, R., Madden, A., Thompson, M., & Kerridge, G. (2016, August). A narrative evidence synthesis of meaningful work: Progress and a research agenda. Anaheim, CA: Academy of Management Conference.Google Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2002). The pursuit of meaningfulness in life. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (pp. 608–618). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Beer, M., Eisenstat, R. A., & Spector, B. (1990). Why change programs don’t produce change. Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/1990/11/why-change-programs-dont-produce-change
  9. Beer, M., & Nohria, N. (2000). Cracking the code of change. HBR’s 10 Must Reads on Change, 78(3), 133–141.Google Scholar
  10. Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). The strategies for taking charge. In Leaders. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  11. Both-Nwabuwe, J., Dijkstra, M., & Beersma, B. (2017). Sweeping the floor or putting a man on the moon: How to define and measure meaningful work. Frontiers in Psychology: Organizational Psychology, 8, 1658.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bunker, B. B., & Alban, B. T. (1997). Large group interventions: Engaging the whole system for rapid change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  13. Burke, W. W. (2011). A perspective on the field of organization development and change: The Zeigarnik effect. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 47(2), 143–167.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886310388161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2011). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Cooperrider, D., & Srivastava, S. (1987). Appreciative inquiry in organizational life. In W. A. Pasmore & R. W. Woodman (Eds.), Research in organizational change and development (Vol. 1, pp. 129–169). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  16. Crawford, E. R., LePine, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2010). Linking job demands and resources to employee engagement and burnout: A theoretical extension and meta-analytic test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 834.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crumpton, D. J. (2018). Instructional behavior and its impact on student engagement (10931802). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2133013481).Google Scholar
  18. Demirtas, O., Hannah, S. T., Gok, K., Arslan, A., & Capar, N. (2017). The moderated influence of ethical leadership, via meaningful work, on followers’ engagement, organizational identification, and envy. Journal of Business Ethics, 145(1), 183–199.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2907-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Farran, P. (2018). Cultivating work meaningfulness with appreciative inquiry (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Benedictine University, Lisle, IL. https://ben.constellation.libras.org/handle/10969/1303
  20. Frankl, V. E. (1959). Man’s search for meaning. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gallup. (2017). Gallup 2017 State of the American Workplace Report. Retrieved from: http://news.gallup.com/reports/199961/7.aspx
  22. Geller, R., Krasner, M., & Korones, D. (2010). Clinician self-care: The applications of mindfulness-based approaches in preventing professional burnout and compassion fatigue. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 39(2), 366.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.11.279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1999). What predicts change in marital interaction over time? A study of alternative medicine. Family Process, 38(2), 143–158.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1999.00143.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grant, A. M. (2008). The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 108–124.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  26. Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.2.268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hirschi, A. (2012). Callings and work engagement: Moderated mediation model of work meaningfulness, occupational identity, and occupational self-efficacy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(3), 479.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hooper, E. (2016, February 16). Can helping others help you find meaning in life? Retrieved from http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/can_helping_others_help_you_find_meaning_in_life
  29. Horney, N., Pasmore, B., & O’Shea, T. (2010). Leadership agility: A business imperative for a VUCA world. Human Resource Planning, 33(4), 34.Google Scholar
  30. Hülsheger, U. R., Alberts, H. J. E. M., Feinholdt, A., & Lang, J. W. B. (2013). Benefits of mindfulness at work: The role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), 310–335.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huy, Q. N., Corley, K. G., & Kraatz, M. S. (2014). From support to mutiny: Shifting legitimacy judgments and emotional reactions impacting the implementation of radical change. Academy of Management Journal, 57(6), 1650–1680.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2012.0074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Idris, M. A., Dollard, M. F., & Tuckey, M. R. (2015). Psychosocial safety climate as a management tool for employee engagement and performance: A multilevel analysis. International Journal of Stress Management, 22(2), 183.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724.  https://doi.org/10.2307/256287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kahn, W. A. (2007). Meaningful connections: Positive relationships and attachments at work. In J. E. Dutton & B. R. Ragins (Eds.), Exploring positive relationships at work: Building a theoretical and research foundation (pp. 189–206). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  35. Kindipan, I. A. (2017). The role of leader empowering behaviors on work engagement and intent to stay among staff nurses in acute care hospitals (10670508). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1989714161).Google Scholar
  36. Koch, S. (1981). The nature and limits of psychological knowledge: Lessons of a century qua ‘science’. American Psychologist, 36(3), 257–269.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.36.3.257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kompaso, S. M., & Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee engagement: The key to improving performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 89.  https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v5n12p89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kotter, J. P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 59–67. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2007/01/leading-change-why-transformation-efforts-failGoogle Scholar
  39. Kotter, J. P., & Cohen, D. S. (2002). The heart of change: Real-life stories of how people change their organizations. San Francisco: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kritsonis, A. (2005). Comparison of change theories. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 8(1), 1–7. Retrieved from: http://commonweb.unifr.ch/artsdean/pub/gestens/f/as/files/4655/31876_103146.pdfGoogle Scholar
  41. Kwon, B., Farndale, E., & Park, J. G. (2016). Employee voice and work engagement: Macro, meso, and micro-level drivers of convergence? Human Resource Management Review, 26, 327–337.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2016.04.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lee, M. C. C., Idris, M. A., & Delfabbro, P. H. (2017). The linkages between hierarchical culture and empowering leadership and their effects on employees’ work engagement: Work meaningfulness as a mediator. International Journal of Stress Management, 24(4), 392.  https://doi.org/10.1037/str0000043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Leiter, M. P., & Harvie, P. (1997). Correspondence of supervisor and subordinate perspectives during major organizational change. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2(4), 343.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.2.4.343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Leroy, H., Anseel, F., Dimitrova, N. G., & Sels, L. (2013). Mindfulness, authentic functioning, and work engagement: A growth modeling approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82(3), 238–247.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.01.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lippitt, R. (1958). The dynamics of planned change: A comparative study of principles and techniques. Brace: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  46. Lips-Wiersma, M., & Morris, L. (2018). The map of meaningful work: A practical guide to sustaining our humanity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Lips-Wiersma, M., & Wright, S. (2012). Measuring the meaning of meaningful work: Development and validation of the Comprehensive Meaningful Work Scale (CMWS). Group & Organization Management, 37(5), 655–685.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601112461578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lips-Wiersma, M., Wright, S., & Dik, B. (2016). Meaningful work: Differences among blue-, pink-, and white-collar occupations. The Career Development International, 21(5), 534–551.  https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-04-2016-0052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ludema, J. D., Whitney, D., Mohr, B., & Griffin, T. (2003). The appreciative inquiry summit. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  50. Luthans, F., & Peterson, S. J. (2002). Employee engagement and manager self-efficacy. Journal of Management Development, 21(5), 376–387.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710210426864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Luu, T. T. (2017). Collective job crafting and team service recovery performance: A moderated mediation mechanism. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 35(5), 641–656.  https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-02-2017-0025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3–30.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2007.0002.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McClelland, G. P., Leach, D. J., Clegg, C. W., & McGowan, I. (2014). Collaborative crafting in call Centre teams. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(3), 464–486.  https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maitlis, S., & Lawrence, T. (2007). Triggers and enablers of sensegiving in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1), 57–84.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840616634127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mäkikangas, A., Aunola, K., Seppälä, P., & Hakanen, J. (2016). Work engagement-team performance relationship: Shared job crafting as a moderator. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 89(4), 772–790.  https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mäkikangas, A., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2017). Antecedents of daily team job crafting. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 26(3), 421–433.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2017.1289920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 11–37.  https://doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Morgan, N. (2001). Do you have change fatigue? Working knowledge: Business research for business leaders. Harvard Business School. Retrieved from: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/do-you-have-change-fatigue
  59. Pasmore, W. A. (2011). Tipping the balance: Overcoming persistent problems in organizational change. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 19, 259–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pratt, M. G., & Ashforth, B. E. (2003). Fostering meaningfulness in working and at work. In K. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 309–327). San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  61. Pratt, M. G., Rockmann, K. W., & Kaufmann, J. B. (2006). Constructing professional identity: The role of work and identity learning cycles in the customization of identity among medical residents. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2), 235–262.  https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2006.20786060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Prouty, D. M. (2017). Self-efficacy, gender and tenure: Determinants of work engagement among student affairs personnel (10258294). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1878938984).Google Scholar
  63. Rees, C., Alfes, K., & Gatenby, M. (2013). Employee voice and engagement: connections and consequences. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(14), 2780–2798.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.763843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rosso, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2010.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600–619.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610690169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  67. Shuck, B., & Wollard, K. (2010). Employee engagement and HRD: A seminal review of the foundations. Human Resource Development Review, 9(1), 89–110.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484309353560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Smith, J. G., & Futrell, C. M. (2014). The inspired salesperson: Linking spirituality to performance. Marketing Management Journal, 24(2), 172–185. Retrieved from: http://www.mmaglobal.org/publications/MMJ/MMJ-Issues/2014-Fall/MMJ-2014-Fall-Vol24-Issue2-Smith-Futrell-pp172-185.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sonenshein, S. (2006). Crafting social issues at work. Academy of Management Journal, 49(6), 1158–1172.  https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2006.23478243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Steger, M. F., & Dik, B. J. (2010). Work as meaning: Individual and organizational benefits of engaging in meaningful work. In P. A. Linley, S. Harrington, & N. Garcea (Eds.), Oxford library of psychology. Oxford handbook of positive psychology and work (pp. 131–142). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring meaningful work: The work and meaning inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 00(0), 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072711436160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Srivastava, A., Bartol, K. M., & Locke, E. A. (2006). Empowering leadership in management teams: Effects on knowledge sharing, efficacy, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49(6), 1239–1251.  https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2006.23478718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thrash, T. M., & Elliott, A. J. (2003). Inspiration as a psychological construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 871–889.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., Derks, D., & van Rhenen, W. (2013). Job crafting at the team and individual level: Implications for work engagement and performance. Group and Organization Management, 38(4), 427–454.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601113492421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Towers-Perrin. (2003). The 2003 Towers Perrin talent report: Working today: Understanding what drives employee engagement. Retrieved from: http://www.keepem.com/doc_files/Towers_Perrin_Talent_2003%28TheFinal%29.pdf
  76. Van Tongeren, D. R., Green, J. D., Davis, D. E., Hook, J. N., & Hulsey, T. (2016). Prosociality enhances meaning in life. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(3), 225–236.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2015.1048814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  78. Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(2), 222–244.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Williams, J. (2017). Meaningful work, distress tolerance, and age predicting burnout in U.S. working adults (10607227). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1946189034).Google Scholar
  80. Wood, S., & De Menezes, L. M. (2011). High involvement management, high-performance work systems and well-being. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(7), 1586–1610.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2011.561967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wrzesniewski, A., McCauley, C., Rozin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers, and callings: People’s relations to their work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(1), 21–33.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jrpe.1997.2162
  82. Wrzesniewski, A., Dutton, J. E., & Debebe, G. (2003). Interpersonal sensemaking and the meaning of work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 25, 93–135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-3085(03)25003-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wrzesniewski, A. (2003). Finding positive meaning in work. In K. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 296–308). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  84. Yeoman, R. (2014). Meaningful work and workplace democracy: A philosophy of work and a politics of meaningfulness. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Young, S. F., & Steelman, L. A. (2017). Marrying personality and job resources and their effect on engagement via critical psychological states. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(6), 797–824.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2016.1138501CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa A. Norcross
    • 1
  • Patrick Farran
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.United Services Automobile Association (USAA)San AntonioUSA
  2. 2.University of Notre DameNotre DameUSA
  3. 3.Ad Lucem GroupGoshenUSA

Personalised recommendations