Advertisement

Finding the Key to Positive Leadership: Applying Virtue Ethics and Inclusivity

  • Kerri Cissna
  • H. Eric SchockmanEmail author
Chapter
  • 56 Downloads
Part of the Management for Professionals book series (MANAGPROF)

Abstract

Positive leadership has evolved from the study of positive psychology and brain research (Carleton et al, Can J Behav Sci 50:185–194.  https://doi.org/10.1037/cbs000010, 2018; Hannah et al, J Organ Behav 30:269–290.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.586, 2009; Luthans, J Organ Behav 23:695–706.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.165, 2002; Saladis, Positive leadership in project management. Paper presented at PMI Global Congress 2015—EMEA. Project Management Institute, London/Newtown Square, 2015; van Dierendonck, J Manag 37:1228–1261.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310380462, 2010) and seeks to better understand the role that leaders have on their followers through invoking positive and purposeful modeling, leading to enhancing positive emotions and outcomes. The work of Kim Cameron (Positive leadership. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., San Francisco, 2008) provides a solid launching pad for the study positive leadership, which includes vital traits and skills such as positive affect, mindfulness, virtuousness, moral integrity, emotional stability, and hope. Cameron’s three connotations of positive leadership are as follows: (1) it facilitates positively deviant performance; (2) it features an affirmative bias, meaning that it is oriented toward positive instead of negative strengths; and (3) it fosters the good in people. This chapter builds on Cameron’s notion that positive leadership “fosters the good in people” and creates a formula that Virtuous Ethics + Inclusivity = Positive Leadership. This new organic leadership (and followership) framework uses virtuous ethics and inclusiveness as a roadmap to the state of organizational and personal flow. If positive leaders increase the flow of positive emotions for people to optimize their inherent strengths, then this intentional leadership style will bring out the best in people. There will be “net” positive interactions (more positive than negative); the culture will be inclusive, transparent, supportive; and there will be underlying virtue ethics at the core.

Keywords

Positive leadership Positive psychology Ethics Virtue Inclusion Inclusive leadership Diversity Inclusivity Flourishing Flow 

References

  1. Abatiello, A., Knight, M., Philpot, S., & Roy, I. (2017). Leadership disrupted: Pushing the boundaries. 2017 Global Human Capital Trends. Retrieved from: https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/developing-digitalleaders.html?id=us:2ps:3gl:confidence:eng:cons:::na:nE1ffW7d:1079836496:244804533080:b:RLSA_Human_Capital_Trends::nb
  2. Aristotle. (2004). In H. Treddenick (Ed.), The Nicomachean ethics. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  3. Ashmos, D. P., & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measure. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 134–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baumeister, R., & Leary, M. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benjamin Jr., L. T. (1992). The history of American psychology [Special issue]. American Psychologist, 47(2), 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhunia, A., Mukhuti, S., & Khan, I. U. (2012). Workplace spirituality on motivations for earnings management: An empirical analysis. Zenith International Journal of Business Economics & Management Research, 2(2), ISSN 22498826. Retrieved at: http://www.zenithresearch.org.in/Google Scholar
  7. Bilimoria, D., Joy, S., & Liang, X. (2008). Breaking barriers and creating inclusiveness: Lessons of organizational transformation to advance women faculty in academic science and engineering. Human Resource Management, 47, 423–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourke, J., & Dillon, B. (2016). The six signature traits of inclusive leadership: Thriving in a diverse new world. Deloitte Insights. Retrieved from: https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/topics/talent/six-signature-traits-of-inclusive-leadership.html#endnote-sup-46
  9. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol 1. Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  10. Bowlby, J. (1979). The making and breaking of affectional bonds. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  11. Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cameron, K. S. (2008). Positive leadership. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  13. Carleton, E. L., Barling, J., & Trivisonno, M. (2018). Leaders’ trait mindfulness and transformational leadership: The mediating roles of leaders’ positive affect and leadership self-efficacy. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 50, 185–194.  https://doi.org/10.1037/cbs000010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carmeli, A., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Ziv, E. (2010). Inclusive leadership and employee involvement in creative tasks in the workplace: The mediating role of psychological??Safety. Creativity Research Journal, 22(3), 250–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Conley, C. (2017). Peak: How great companies get their mojo from Maslow. Retrieved from: https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.lib.pepperdine.edu
  16. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Purpose and mind. Journal of Contemporary Psychology: A Journal of Reviews, 20(4), 352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  18. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Seligman, M. E. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daft, R. L. (2008). The leadership experience. Mason, OH: South-Western.Google Scholar
  20. Dhiman, S. (2012). Mindfulness and the art of living creatively: Cultivating a creative life by minding our mind. Journal of Social Change, 4(1), 1.Google Scholar
  21. Diener, E., Sandvik, E., Pavot, W., Strack, F., Argyle, M., & Schwarz, N. (1991). Subjective well-being: An interdisciplinary perspective. International Series in Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 119–139.Google Scholar
  22. Finnis, J. (1999). Natural law and human rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  23. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fry, L. W. (2003). Towards a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 693–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gardner, J. W. (1965). The anti-leadership vaccine. Annual report for the fiscal year (pp. 3–12). New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York.Google Scholar
  26. Gonzalez, J. A., & DeNisi, A. S. (2009). Cross-level effects of demography and diversity climate on organizational attachment and firm effectiveness. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gupta, A. A. K. (2017). Workplace spirituality-a new paradigm in management. Ushus-Journal of Business Management, 16(2), 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hannah, S. T., Woolfolk, R. L., & Lord, R. G. (2009). Leader self-structure: A framework for positive leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 269–290.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hollander, E. (1958). Conformity, status and idiosyncrasy credit. Psychological Review, 65(2), 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hollander, E. (2009). Inclusive leadership: The essential leader-follower relationship. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Holvino, E., Ferdman, B. M., & Merrill-Sands, D. (2004). Creating and sustaining diversity and inclusion in organizations: Strategies and approaches. In M. S. Stockdale & F. J. Crosby (Eds.), The psychology and management of workplace diversity (pp. 245–276). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  32. Homan, A. C., Hollenbeck, J. R., Humphrey, S. E., Knippenberg, D. V., Ilgen, D. R., & Van Kleef, G. A. (2008). Facing differences with an open mind: Openness to experience, salience of intragroup differences, and performance of diverse work groups. Academy of Management Journal, 51(6), 1204–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Janakiraman, M. (2011). Inclusive leadership: Critical for a competitive advantage. Berlitz Cultural Insights Series, 1–6.Google Scholar
  34. Kahneman, D., Diener, E., & Schwarz, N. (Eds.). (1999). Well-being: Foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  35. Koch, S., & Leary, D. E. (1985). A century of psychology as science. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  36. Kurschner, I., & Schmidt, S. (2017). Catalyst Europe Roundtable: Unlock Employee Innovation through Inclusive Leadership. Retrieved from: http://www.catalyst.org/events/catalyst-europe-roundtable-unlock-employee-innovation-through-inclusive-leadership
  37. Lee, K. (2013). Even banks must ‘innovate or die.’ Asset. Retrieved from: http://www.theasset.com/article/25449.html#axzz2rpTg5dv5
  38. Lirio, P., Lee, M. D., Williams, M. L., Haugen, L. K., & Kossek, E. E. (2008). The inclusion challenge with reduced load professionals: The role of the manager. Human Resource Management, 47, 443–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Luthans, F. (2002). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 695–706.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maslow, A. H. (1994). Religion, values and peak experiences (reprint). New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  41. Miller, F. A. (1998). Strategic culture change: The door to achieving high performance and inclusion. Public Personnel Management, 27, 151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Milliman, J., Czaplewski, A. J., & Ferguson, J. (2003). Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: An exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4), 426–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mitchell, S. (2002). Bhagavad Gita: A new translation. New York: Three Rivers Press.Google Scholar
  44. Mor Barak, M. E. (2000). Beyond affirmative action: Toward a model of diversity and organizational inclusion. Administration in Social Work, 23(3–4), 47–68.Google Scholar
  45. Morgan, E. (2017). In A. Boitano, R. Dutra, & H. E. Schockman (Eds.), Breaking the zero-sum game: Transforming societies through inclusive leadership (pp. 5–27). Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morrow, C. (2014). Moving the dial: Measuring inclusive leadership. Diversity Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.diversityjournal.com/13313-moving-dial-measuring-inclusive-leadership/
  47. Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, L., Ge, T., Chong, M., Ferguson, M. A., Misic, B., Burrow, A. L., et al. (2019). Loneliness and meaning in life are reflected in the intrinsic network architecture of the brain. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 14, 423–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pawar, B. S. (2009). Some of the recent organizational behavior concepts as precursor to workplace spirituality. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(2), 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pelled, L. H., Ledford, G. E., & Mohrman, S. A. (1999). Demographic dissimilarity and workplace inclusion. Journal of Management Studies, 36, 1013–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Petchsawang, P., & Duchon, D. (2009). Measuring workplace spirituality in an Asian context. Human Resource Development International, 12(4), 459–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Popper, M., Mayseless, O., & Castelnovo, O. (2000). Transformational leadership and attachment. The Leadership Quarterly, 11(2), 267–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2018). CEO success study: Succeeding the long-serving legend in the corner office. Frankfurt (Main), Germany: PricewaterhouseCoopers. Retrieved from: https://www.strategyand.pwc.com/ceosuccess
  53. Rego, A., & Cunha, M. P. (2008). Workplace spirituality and organizational commitment: An empirical study. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(1), 53–75.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09534810810847039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Roberson, Q. M. (2006). Disentangling the meanings of diversity and inclusion in organizations. Group and Organization Management, 31, 212–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Saladis, F. P. (2015). Positive leadership in project management. Paper presented at PMI Global Congress 2015—EMEA, London, UK/Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.Google Scholar
  56. Seligman, M. (2002). Authentic happiness. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  57. Shore, L. M., Randel, A. E., Chung, B. G., Dean, M. A., Holcombe Ehrhart, K., & Singh, G. (2011). Inclusion and diversity in work groups: A review and model for future research. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1262–1289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Smith, R. (1997). The human sciences. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  59. Treviño, L., den Nieuwenboer, N., & Kish-Gephart, J. (2014). (Un)ethical behavior in organizations. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 635–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. van Dierendonck, D. (2010). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 37, 1228–1261.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310380462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wasserman, I. C., Gallegos, P. V., & Ferdman, B. M. (2008). Dancing with resistance: Leadership challenges in fostering a culture of inclusion. In K. M. Thomas (Ed.), Diversity resistance in organizations (pp. 175–200). New York: Taylor & Francis Group/Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  62. Yip, J., Ehrhardt, K., Black, H., & Walker, D. O. (2018). Attachment theory at work: A review and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(2), 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pepperdine UniversityMalibuUSA
  2. 2.Woodbury UniversityBurbankUSA

Personalised recommendations