The Second Generation of National Security Exceptions: Departing from the GATT Tradition?

  • Sebastián Mantilla Blanco
  • Alexander Pehl
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Law book series (BRIEFSLAW)


From the 1950s onwards, national security exceptions gradually emancipated from the GATT language, particularly by eliminating the words ‘it considers’. This second generation of security clauses appeared in a multitude of FCN treaties and investment agreements. These provisions entailed a reduction of States’ margin of discretion and were an expression of a growing trust towards international institutions and dispute settlement mechanisms. Clauses from this generation were considered in several cases before the ICJ and investment tribunals.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebastián Mantilla Blanco
    • 1
  • Alexander Pehl
    • 2
  1. 1.BonnGermany
  2. 2.CologneGermany

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