The Enactment of Official Language Policies in Mutituni and Nyika Primary Schools: Their Impact on Learning

  • Esther Mukewa Lisanza


This chapter discusses the implications of teaching a child in a foreign language or a primary language. The two primary schools under discussion are Mutituni and Nyika in Kenya. Mutituni was situated in the countryside while Nyika was situated in the city. The language of instruction in both schools was English. English was a primary language to the majority of the city children, while English was foreign to the countryside children. This study found out that teaching a child in its primary language promotes learning, while teaching a child in a foreign language impedes learning. The chapter also discusses how translanguaging was used by both the teachers and their pupils, especially at Mutituni, to create meaning and how the teacher’s mediating role empowered pupils in their learning.


Mediation Language policy Classroom interactions IRE Translanguaging Codeswitching 


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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esther Mukewa Lisanza
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of African StudiesHoward UniversityWashington, DCUSA

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