Investigation on Extraction and Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Secondary Solid Wastes

  • Saroj Sekhar Behera
  • Ranjan Kumar Mohapatra
  • Debadutta Das
  • Pankaj Kumar Parhi


At present days the secondary solid wastes including e-wastes, catalyst waste, magnet waste, and scrap alloys have become important sources owing to claiming of a considerable amount of REE metals. Moreover, the global demand of the REE metals in recent days is extremely high for their extensive usages on making high-end materials. This certainly lured metallurgists for developing suitable processing technology for efficient and definite recovery of the REE metal values from the above sources as the existence of rare earth metals bearing minerals is limited. Various pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical approaches as well as the combination of both approaches have been adopted by different groups of researchers for effective recovery of REEs. The pyro-processing approach has a number of disadvantages and hence hydrometallurgical process accomplishing leaching-solvent extraction-precipitation route is being comprehensively adopted in most of the rare earth metallurgy. The adaptation of microwave (MW) assistance and ultrasound wave (UW) is becoming significant in chemical leaching processes. However in solvent extraction process in addition to the usage of commercial reagents, ionic liquids (ILs) have been reported to be very high process selective and promising. In terms of shortcomings, this chapter gives a detailed information about the sources of generation of each of these secondary solid wastes, issues and challenges, extraction strategies, prospective of hydrometallurgy, leaching process, assistance of MW and US and leaching mechanism, liquid-liquid extraction for separation of REE using commercial and noble IL reagents, SX mechanism study, and recovery of the REE metals through precipitation method.


Hydrometallurgy Microwave Ultrasonic wave Solvent extraction (SX) Ionic liquids (ILs) 



Author Pankaj Kumar Parhi would like to acknowledge and say thanks to SERB, DST, Govt. of India, and DST-Inspire Programme for awarding Young Scientist (CS-076/2014) and Inspire Faculty (IFA12-CH-26) under Start-Up Research Grant and Inspire Faculty Award scheme, respectively, and the financial assistance provided under the research grant to investigate this work. Co-authors Saroj Sekhar Behera and Ranjan Kumar Mohapatra wish to acknowledge DST, Govt. of India.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saroj Sekhar Behera
    • 1
  • Ranjan Kumar Mohapatra
    • 2
    • 1
  • Debadutta Das
    • 3
  • Pankaj Kumar Parhi
    • 4
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chemical Technology and School of BiotechnologyKalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) Deemed to be UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Government College of EngineeringKeonjharIndia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistrySukanti Degree CollegeSubarnapurIndia
  4. 4.Convergence Research Center for Development of Mineral ResourcesKorea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM)DaejeonSouth Korea

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