Joint Enterprise, Hostility and the Construction of Dangerous Belonging
- 18 Downloads
This chapter investigates the pervasiveness of risk-based logics in criminalization by exploring the role of the construction of dangerous identities and belonging within the law of joint enterprise (JE) in England and Wales. The chapter argues that recent transformations in this area of law express and expose an ambivalence within the criminal law, which leaves it intrinsically vulnerable to the demands of insecurity and uncertainty that drive concerns with risk. It does so first by examining the context, law and practical consequences of joint enterprise, which, in the chapter, is characterized as an example of hostile criminalization, a form of criminalization that is geared at channeling hostility toward individuals and groups that are identified as dangerous others. It then discusses how the 2016 decision by the UK Supreme Court in R v Jogee, which formally abolished the main doctrine grounding joint enterprise, left this area of criminalization substantially undisturbed. The chapter concludes by suggesting that forms of hostile criminalization, and the overwhelming concern with risk displayed by them, cannot be easily dispelled through formal efforts at legal reform, since they serve a (deeply problematic) social function.
KeywordsJoint enterprise Criminalization Hostility Ambivalence Jogee Prevention
- Ashworth, A. and Zedner, L. (2014) Preventive Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
- BBC (2016) ‘Joint enterprise law wrongly interpreted for 30 years, Supreme Court rules’. BBC [Online]. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-35598896 (Accessed: 9 January 2019).
- Carvalho, H. (2017) The Preventive Turn in Criminal Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Carvalho, H. and Chamberlen, A. (2016) ‘Punishment, justice and emotions’. In: M. Tonry (ed.) Oxford Handbooks Online in Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1–31.Google Scholar
- Cavafy, C. P. (2007) The Collected Poems with parallel Greek text (translated by Evangelos Sachperoglou). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Cohen, S. (1972) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. London: MacGibbon and Kee.Google Scholar
- Crewe, B., Liebling, A., Padfield, N. and Virgo, G. (2015) ‘Joint enterprise: The implications of an unfair and unclear law’. Criminal Law Review, 252–269.Google Scholar
- Crown Prosecution Service (2018) Secondary Liability: charging decisions on principals and accessories [Online]. Available at: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/secondary-liability-charging-decisions-principals-and-accessories (Accessed: 9 January 2019).
- Davis, A. P. and Gibson-Light, M. (2018) ‘Difference and Punishment: Ethno-political Exclusion, Colonial Institutional Legacies, and Incarceration’. Punishment and Society (Online First), 1–22.Google Scholar
- Ericson, R. (2007) Crime in an Insecure World (London: Polity Press).Google Scholar
- Farmer, L. (2016) Making the Modern Criminal Law: Criminalization and Civil Order. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Fassin, D. (2018) The Will to Punish. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- HC Deb (2018). 25 January 2018, vol. 635, col. 445 [Online]. Available at: https://hansard.parliament.uk/commons/2018-01-25/debates/00389B37-64AA-4AC8-BBBB-BE6B98F9C5C1/JointEnterprise (Accessed: 9 January 2019).
- House of Commons Justice Committee (2012) Joint Enterprise. London: The Stationery Office Limited.Google Scholar
- Husak, D. (2007) Overcriminalization: The Limits of the Criminal Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Lacey, N. (2016) In Search of Criminal Responsibility: Ideas, Interests, and Institutions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Lianos, M. (2013) ‘Normative Otherness: From ‘Sovereign Subjects’ to ‘Collateral Damage”. In M. Lianos (ed), Dangerous Others, Insecure Societies. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Liebling, A. and Maruna. S. (2005) The Effects of Imprisonment. Willan Publishing: London.Google Scholar
- McClenaghan, M., McFadyean, M. and Stevenson, R. (2014) Joint Enterprise: An investigation into the legal doctrine of joint enterprise in criminal convictions. London: The Bureau of Investigative Journalism.Google Scholar
- Norrie, A. (2018) ‘Legal and Social Murder: What’s the Difference?’, Criminal Law Review, 7, 531–542.Google Scholar
- Ormerod, D. and Laird, K. (2016) ‘Jogee: not the end of a legal saga but the start of one?’ Criminal Law Review, 8, 539–552.Google Scholar
- Pitts, J. (2014) ‘Who Dunnit? Gangs, Joint Enterprise, Bad Character and Duress’. Youth and Policy, 113, 48–59.Google Scholar
- Pratt, J. (2016) ‘Risk Control, Rights and Legitimacy in the Limited Liability State’. British Journal of Criminology, 57, 1322–1339.Google Scholar
- Prison Reform Trust (2018) Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile: Autumn 2018 [Online]. Available at: http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/Portals/0/Documents/Bromley%20Briefings/Autumn%202018%20Factfile.pdf (Accessed: 9 January 2019).
- R v ABCD (2010) EWCA Crim 1622. Westlaw [Online]. Available at: https://legalresearch.westlaw.co.uk (Accessed: 15 April 2019).
- R v Anwar and others (2016) EWCA Crim 551. Westlaw [Online]. Available at: https://legalresearch.westlaw.co.uk (Accessed: 15 April 2019).
- R v Jogee (2016) UKSC 8. Westlaw [Online]. Available at: https://legalresearch.westlaw.co.uk (Accessed: 15 April 2019).
- R v Johnson and others (2016) EWCA Crim 1613. Westlaw [Online]. Available at: https://legalresearch.westlaw.co.uk (Accessed: 15 April 2019).
- R v Powell and English (1997) 3 WLR 959. Westlaw [Online]. Available at: https://legalresearch.westlaw.co.uk (Accessed: 15 April 2019).
- Squires, P. (2016a) ‘Voodoo Liability: Join Enterprise Prosecution as an Aspect of Intensified Criminalisation’. Oñati Socio-Legal Series, 6(4), 937–956.Google Scholar
- Squires, P. (2016b) ‘Constructing the Dangerous, Black, Criminal “Other”’. British Society of Criminology Newsletter, 79, 1–4.Google Scholar
- Tobin, O. (2018) ‘Jermaine Goupall killer has to be held back in the dock as he lashes out after being found guilty’. Croydon Advertiser [Online]. Available at: https://www.croydonadvertiser.co.uk/news/croydon-news/jermaine-goupall-killer-held-back-1215673 (Accessed: 9 January 2019).
- Traynor, L. and Nathan, F. (2019) “Blind’ boy, 15, jailed for life over murder he ‘didn’t see’ set to be released’, Mirror [Online]. Available at: https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/blind-boy-15-jailed-life-14914727 (Accessed: 10 May 2019).
- Wacquant, L. (2009) Punishing the Poor. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Walton, G. (2016) ‘Hundreds of convicted killers may seek to appeal after ‘joint enterprise’ law wrongly interpreted for 30 years’. The Telegraph [Online]. Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/law-and-order/12162445/Supreme-Court-joint-enterprise-ruling-accessories-to-murder.html (Accessed: 9 January 2019).
- Williams, P. and Clarke, B. (2016) Dangerous associations: Joint enterprise, gangs and racism. London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies.Google Scholar