Advertisement

The Paths of Political Violence

  • Fabio de NardisEmail author
Chapter
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

The phenomenon of the state is connected to that of violence. Modern states arise and are consolidated through a great mobilisation of the resources necessary for the exercise of physical force. Within a specific territory, state violence is exercised to ensure social order and security, both against possible internal threats and to defend the borders against external challenges. In the first case, organised coercion is entrusted to the police; in the second case, to the military forces. Political violence is therefore primarily an instrument exercised from above, that is, by the state on the citizens, but it can also be exercised from below, as an instrument of struggle against public institutions. This is the case of terrorism and of the various forms of anti-institutional political violence, or of social revolutions, seen as processes of subversion of the existing socio-political order by alternative power blocs. Terrorist practice, or pure political violence, is not exercised only against the state and its citizens but can also be an instrument of coercion and deterrence adopted by official power, both in a context of war and in a situation of political stability. The historical evolution of traditional wars into the final stage of asymmetric global wars is a paradigmatic example.

Keywords

Political violence Policing power Terrorism War Revolution 

References

  1. Arendt, H. (1965). On Revolution. New York: Viking Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baecheler, J. (1975). Revolution. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  3. Berger, P. L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  4. Bosi, L., & della Porta, D. (2011). La violenza politica: una introduzione. Partecipazione e conflitto, 4(3), 5–16.Google Scholar
  5. Brinton R. (1965). Anatomy of Revolution, Revised and Expanded Edition; First Published in 1938, New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  6. Brusten, M., Feest, J., & Lautmann, R. (1975). Die Polizei: eine Institution ӧffentlicher Gewalt: Analysen, Kritik, empirischen daten. Neuwied: Luchterhand.Google Scholar
  7. Che Guevara, E. (1960). La guerra de guerrillas. Avana: Departamento de Instrucción of the MINFAR.Google Scholar
  8. Cirulli, A., & Conversi, D. (2010). Movimenti e conflitti etnoterritoriali: una introduzione. Partecipazione e conflitto, 3(2), 5–14.Google Scholar
  9. Collins, R. (1975). Conflict Sociology: Toward an Explanatory Science. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. Crenshaw, M. (1981). The Causes of Terrorism. Comparative Politics, 13, 379–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crenshaw, M. (Ed.). (1995). Terrorism in Context. Philadelphia, PA: Upenn.Google Scholar
  12. Crenshaw, M. (2011). Explaining Terrorism: Causes, Processes and Consequences. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Davies, J. C. (1962). Toward a Theory of Revolution. American Sociological Review, 27(1), 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davies, J. C. (1969). The J-curve of Rising and Declining Satisfaction as a Cause of some Great Revolution and a Contained Rebellion. In H. D. Graham & T. R. Gurr (Eds.), Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspective (pp. 690–730). Beverly-Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. della Porta, D. (1990). Il terrorismo di sinistra in Italia. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  16. della Porta, D. (1995). Social Movements, Political Violence, and the State. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. della Porta, D. (2001). Terror Against the State. In K. Nash & A. Scott (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology (pp. 208–216). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  18. della Porta, D. (2007). Violenza politica e Nuova sinistra. In F. de Nardis (Ed.), La società in movimento (pp. 159–188). Rome: Editori Riuniti (University Press).Google Scholar
  19. della Porta, D., & Reiter, H. (Eds.). (1998). Policing Protest. The Control of Mass Demonstration in Western Democracies. Minneapolis, MN: The University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  20. della Porta, D., & Tarrow, S. (1987). Unwanted Children: Political Violence and the Cycle of Protest in Italy. 1966–1973. European Journal of Political Research, 14, 607–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dollard, J., Doob, L., Miller, N., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. (1967). Frustration and Aggression. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Duffield, M. (1994). The Political Economy of Internal War: Asset Transfer, Complex Emergencies and International Aid. In J. Macrae & A. Ziwi (Eds.), War and Hunger: Rethinking International Responsens (pp. 50–69). London: Zed Press.Google Scholar
  23. Duffield, M. (1998). Post-Modern Conflict: Warlords, Post-adjustment States and Private Protection. Journal of Civil Wars, 1(Spring, 1), 65–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eckstein, H. (1980). Theoretical Approaches to Explaining Collective Political Violence. In T. H. Gurr (Ed.), Handbook of Political Conflict (pp. 135–165). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  25. Edwards, L. (1972). The Natural History of Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  26. Eisenstadt, S. N. (1963). The Political Systems of Empires: The Rise and Fall of the Historical Bureaucratic Societies. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
  27. Eisenstadt, S. N. (1978). Revolution and the Transformation of Society. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  28. Ferguson, A. (1996 [1767]). An Essay on the History of Civil Society. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Finer, S. (1975). State and Nation-Building in Europe: The Role of the Military. In C. Tilly (Ed.), The Formation of National States in Western Europe (pp. 84–163). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Friedrich, C. J. (1966). Revolution. New York: Atherton.Google Scholar
  31. Geschwender, J. A. (1968). Explorations in the Theory of Revolutions and Social Movements. Social Forces, 47(2), 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gramsci, A. (1971 [1929–1935]). Selections from Prison Notebooks. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  33. Gunning, J. (2009). Social Movement Theory and the Study of Terrorism. In R. Jackson, M. Breen Smyth, & J. Gunning (Eds.), Critical Terrorism Studies: Framing a New Research Agenda (pp. 156–177). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Gurr, T. R. (1970). Why Men Rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Gurvitch, G. (1941). Mass, Community, Communion. Journal of Philosophy, 28(2), 485–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hagopian, M. N. (1974). The Phenomenon of Revolution. New York: Dodd, Mead.Google Scholar
  37. Hamilton, G. R. (1984). Configurations in History: The Historical Sociology of S.N. Eisenstadt. In T. Skocpol (Ed.), Vision and Method in Historical Sociology (pp. 85–128). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hintze, O. (1972). Staat und Verfassung. Gӧttinger: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  39. Hooper, R. D. (1950). The Revolutionary Process. Social Forces, 18(3), 270–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hunt, L. (1984). Charles Tilly’s Collective Action. In T. Skocpol (Ed.), Vision and Method in Historical Sociology (pp. 211–243). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Johnson, C. (1964). Revolution and the Social System. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Studies.Google Scholar
  42. Johnson, C. (1966). Revolutionary Change. Boston: Little & Brown.Google Scholar
  43. Juergensmeyer, M. (2000). Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  44. Kaldor, M. (1999). New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era. London: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  45. Keegan, J. (1993). A History of Warfare. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  46. Keen, D. (1995, December). When War Itself is Privatized. In Times Literary Supplement.Google Scholar
  47. Kimmel, M. S. (1990). Revolution: A Sociological Interpretation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Kolko, G. (1994). A Century of War: Politics, Conflicts and Society Since 1914. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  49. Leiden, C., & Schmitt, K. M. (1968). The Politics of Violence. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-hall.Google Scholar
  50. Lenin, V. I. (1943 [1917]). State and Revolution. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  51. Lenin, V. I. (1969 [1902]). What Is To Be Done? New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  52. Maffesoli, M. (1995). The Time of the Tribes. London: TCS and Sage.Google Scholar
  53. Maffesoli, M. (1996). The Contemplation of the World. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  54. Mann, M. (1986). Source of Social Power (Vol. vol. I). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moore, B., Jr. (1966). Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  56. Moore, B., Jr. (1978). Injustice: The Social Bases of Obedience and Revolt. White Plains, NY: Sharpe.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Peterson, A. (1997). Rainbow Coalitions and Neo-Sectarianism: Youth and the Drama of Immigration in Contemporary Sweden. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  58. Peterson, A. (2001). Contemporary Political Protest: Essays on Political Militancy. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  59. Peterson, A., & Thӧrn, H. (1994). Social Movements as Communicative Praxis: A Case Study of the Plowshares Movement. Young: Scandinavian Journal of Youth Research, 2(2), 26–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pettee, G. S. (1938). The Process of Revolution. New York: Harper and Brothers.Google Scholar
  61. Platt, G. M. (1980). Thoughts on a Theory of Collection Action: Language, Affect and Ideology in Revolution. In M. Albin, R. J. Devlin, & G. Haeger (Eds.), New Directions in Psychohistory: The Adelphi Papers in Honor of Erik Erikson. Lexington: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  62. Poggi, G. (1990). The State: Its Nature, Development, and Prospects. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Poggi, G. (2001). Forms of Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  64. Preston, R. A., & Wise, S. F. (1970). Men in Arms: A History of Warfare and Its Interrelationships with Western Society. New York: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  65. Roberts, M. (1996). The Military Revolution 1560–1660. In D. B. Ralston (Ed.), Soldiers and State: Civil-Military Relations in Modern Europe (pp. 13–35). Boston: Heath and Company.Google Scholar
  66. Ruggiero, V. (2006). Understanding Political Violence. New York: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Scott, A. (2001). The Political Sociology of War. In K. Nash & A. Scott (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology (pp. 183–194). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  68. Shaw, M. (1999). War and Globality: The Role and Character of War in the Global Transition. In H.-W. Jeong (Ed.), The New Agenda for Peace Research (pp. 61–80). London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  69. Skocpol, T. (1979). States and Social Revolutions. A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia and China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Smelser, N. J. (1959). Social Change and the Industrial Revolution. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  71. Smelser, N. J. (1962). Theory of Collective Behavior. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  72. Smith, A. (1904 [1776]). An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  73. Tarrow, S. (1998). Power in Movements. Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tilly, C. (1964). The Vendée. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Tilly, C. (1978). From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  76. Tilly, C. (1984). Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  77. Tilly, C. (1989). Changing Forms of Revolution. Working Paper 80, Center for Studies of Social Change: New School for Social Research.Google Scholar
  78. Tilly, C. (2004). Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists. Sociological Theory, 22(1), 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tilly, C., & Shorter, E. (1974). Strikes in France, 1830–1848. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Tilly, C., Tilly, L., & Tilly, R. (1975). The Rebellious Century, 1830–1930. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Trimberger, E. K. (1978). Revolution from Above: Military Bureaucrats and Development in Japan, Turkey, Egypt and Peru. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  82. van Creveld, M. (1991). The Transformation of War. London: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  83. Von Clausewitz, C. (2007 [1832–1837]). On War. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Wilkinson, P. (1987). Terrorism: An International Research Agenda? In P. Wilkinson & A. M. Stewart (Eds.), Contemporary Research on Terrorism (pp. xi–xx). Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Wolfenstein, E. V. (1971). The Revolutionary Personality: Lenin, Trotsky, Gandhi. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of History, Society, and Human StudiesUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly

Personalised recommendations