Excursus on the Atomic–Molecular Theory of Substance
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From fundamental physics we know well that a substance consists of molecules and atoms. Depending on the character and intensity of the interaction between atoms and molecules, a substance is in one of the following aggregate states: gas, liquid, solid, or plasma. Quantum electronics deals with all of these states, and we consider them in the order of an increasing degree of interaction between particles. We begin with an excursus on an isolated atom.