Finite Element Analysis of Bone and Experimental Validation

  • Francisco M. P. Almeida
  • António M. G. CompletoEmail author
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics book series (LNCVB, volume 35)


This chapter describes the application of the finite element (FE) method to bone tissues. The aspects that differ the most between bone and other materials’ FE analysis are the type of elements used, constitutive models and experimental validation. These aspects are observed from a historical evolution point of view. Several types of elements can be used to simulate similar bone structures, and within the same analysis, many types of elements may be needed to realistically simulate an anatomical part. Special attention is made to constitutive models, including the use of density–elasticity relationships enabled through CT scanned images. Other more complex models are also described, such as viscoelastic and anisotropic models. The importance of experimental validation is discussed, describing several methods used by different authors in this challenging field. The use of cadaveric human bones is not always possible or desirable and other options are described, as the use of animal or artificial bones. Strain and strain rate measuring methods are also discussed, such as rosette strain gauges and optical devices.



This work is supported by the project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028424, funded by Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização (COMPETE 2020) on its component FEDER and by funding from FCT—Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia on its component OE.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco M. P. Almeida
    • 1
  • António M. G. Completo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal

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