Advertisement

Gendered Adaptation and Coping Mechanisms to Climate Variability in Eastern Uganda Rice Farming Systems

  • Thelma Akongo
  • Charity Chonde
Chapter
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter addresses the dynamics and realities of gender-differentiated effects of climate variability on men and women in rice-growing systems in Uganda, based on their capacity to adapt and cope. Findings show that climate variability has reduced yields, cultivable area, and cropping sequence of major crops. Sixty-five percent of the respondents perceived that yields for all the major crops reduced while 25% perceived yield increase as a result of climate variability (p = 0.023 < 0.05). Production of lowland rice variety Super reduced from 2100 kg/hectare in a normal year to 200 kg/hectare in a drought year (p = 0.001 < 0.01) while K5 variety decreased from 2625 kg/hectare to 1750 kg/hectare (p = 0.006 < 0.01). Upland rice variety Kaiso declined from 2375 kg/hectare to 52.5 kg/hectare (p = 0.009 < 0.01). More female respondents reported a decrease in cultivable area for almost all crops, with the exception of cassava, compared to their male counterparts. There were significant differences between the proportions of men and women who perceived decreases in cultivable areas for rice (p = 0.015 < 0.05), maize (p = 0.03 < 0.05), and groundnuts (p = 0.009 < 0.05). The study determines that both men and women are affected by climate variability, becoming poorer with very limited economic, human, and social resources to build resilience to climate change. It further determines that both men and women rely more on coping mechanisms to respond to effects of climate variability, which are more short-term survival strategies compared to long-term adaptation strategies, given the nature of resources at their disposal. The study concludes by proposing appropriate institutional intervention strategies to be integrated into rice commodity development.

References

  1. Adamgbe EM, Ujoh F (2013) Effect of variability in rainfall characteristics on maize yields in Gboko, Nigeria. J Environ Prot 4:881–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Addison M, Edusah SE, Sarfo-Mensah P (2014) Gender constraints and rice varietal characteristics preferences in lowland rice ecosystem in Ghana. J Dev Country Stud 4(15):95Google Scholar
  3. Adekunle W (2013) Improving smallholder incomes through intensification of upland rice. A case study produced by WREN media, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and implemented by the European Initiative on Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD)Google Scholar
  4. Adesina A, Zinnah M (1993) Technology characteristics, farmers’ perceptions and adoption decisions: a Tobit model analysis in Sierra Leone. Agric Econ 9:297–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adoko J, Levine S (2005) A land market for poverty eradication. A case of the impact of Uganda’s land acts on policy hopes for development and poverty eradication. Land and Equity Movement in Uganda (LEMU), KampalaGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmed M (2012) Analysis of incentives and disincentives for rice in Uganda. Technical notes series, MAFAP, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  7. Andresen JA, Alagarswamy G, Rotz CA, Ritchie JT, LeBaron AW (2002) Weather impacts on maize, soybean, and alfalfa production in the Great Lakes region, 1895–1996. J Agron 93:1059–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bigirwa G, Kikafunda J, Lamo J, Ochen J, Opio F, Tsuboi T (2005) Upland rice growing in Uganda: reasons for the rapid spread. Afr Crop Sci Conf Proc 7:151–154Google Scholar
  9. Bikaako W, Ssenkumba J (2003) Gender, land and rights: contemporary contestations in law, policy and practice in Uganda. In: Wanyeki LM (ed) Women and land in Africa. Zed Books, New York, pp 232–277Google Scholar
  10. Duku C, Zwart SJ, Hein L (2018) Impacts of climate change on cropping patterns in a tropical, sub-humid watershed. PLoS One 13(3):e0192642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duvick D (1977) Genetic rates of gain in hybrid maize yields during the past 40 years. Maydica 22:187–196Google Scholar
  12. Duvick DN (1992) Genetic contributions to advances in yield of US maize. Maydica (Italy) 37:69–79Google Scholar
  13. Duvick DN, Cassman KG (1999) Post–green revolution trends in yield potential of temperate maize in the North-Central United States. Crop Sci 39:1622–1630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eid M, El-Marsafawy SM, Ouda SA (2006) Assessing the economic impacts of climate change on agriculture in Egypt, a Ricardian approach. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria, CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 16Google Scholar
  15. FAO (2007) Climate change and food security. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  16. Fernandez-Cornejo J, Daberkow S, Huang H (1994) The adoption of IPM techniques by vegetable growers in Florida, Michigan and Texas. J Agric Appl Econ 26(1):158–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fernandez-Cornejo J, Mishra A, Nehring R, Hendricks C, Southern M, Gregory A (2007) Off-farm income, technology adoption, and farm economic performance. Agricultural Economics Report No. 36. USDA ERS, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  18. Foster D, Rosenzweig M (1995) Learning by doing and learning from others: human capital and technical change in agriculture. J Polit Econ 103(6):1176–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Francis CA (1986) Multiple cropping systems. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, pp 34–39Google Scholar
  20. Greg EE, Anam BE, William MF, Duru EJC (2011) Climate change, food security and agricultural productivity in Africa: Issues and policy directions. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 1(21) 205–223.Google Scholar
  21. IPCC (2013) In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, p 1535Google Scholar
  22. Jagtap S (2007) Managing vulnerability to extreme weather and climate events: Implications for agriculture and food security in Africa. Proceedings of the international conference on climate change and economic sustainability held at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Enugu, Nigeria. 12–14 June 2007Google Scholar
  23. Kariyasa K, Dewi A (2011) Analysis of factors affecting adoption of integrated crop management farmer field school (icm-ffs) in swampy areas. Int J Food Agric Econ 1(2):29–38Google Scholar
  24. Katungi E, Akankwasa K (2010) Community-based organizations and their effect on the adoption of agricultural technologies in Uganda: a study of banana (Musa spp.) pest management technology. Acta Hortic 879:719–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keelan C, Thorne F, Flanagan P, Newman C (2014) Predicted willingness of Irish farmers to adopt GM technology. J Agrobiotechnol Manag Econ 12(3):394–403Google Scholar
  26. Koudahe K, Koffi D, Kayode JA, Awokola SO, Adebola AA (2018) Impact of climate variability on crop yields in southern Togo. Environ Pollut Clim Change 2:148Google Scholar
  27. Kucharik CJ, Ramankutty N (2005) Trends and variability in US corn yields over the twentieth century. J Earth Interact 9:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mariara KJ, Karanja FK (2006) The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture, a Ricardian approach. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria, CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 12Google Scholar
  29. Mauceri M, Alwan J, Norton G, Barrera V (2005) Adoption of integrated pest management technologies: acase study of potato farmers in Carchi, Ecuador; selected paper prepared for presentation at the American Agricultural Economics Association annual meeting, Providence, Rhode Island, 24–27 July 2005Google Scholar
  30. Mignouna B, Manyong M, Rusike J, Mutabazi S, Senkondo M (2011) Determinants of adopting imazapyr-resistant maize technology and its impact on household income in western Kenya. AgBioforum 14(3):158–163Google Scholar
  31. NAADS (2004) National Agricultural Advisory Services, Annual Report 2003/04; Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries, EntebbeGoogle Scholar
  32. Nwafor JC (2007) Global climate change: the driver of multiple causes of flood intensity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Paper presented at the international conference on climate change and economic sustainability held at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Enugu, Nigeria, 12–14 June 2007Google Scholar
  33. Olsson L, Opondo M, Tschakert P, Agrawal A, Eriksen S, Ma S, Perch L, Zakeldeen S (2014) Livelihoods and poverty: climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 793–832Google Scholar
  34. Oryokot J, Forster M, Kayayo B, Pookat V (2004) Public/Private sector partnerships in sustainable development and promotion of rice for improved household incomes. Paper presented at the year of rice conference, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  35. Porter JR, Xie L, Challinor AJ, Cochrane K, Howden SM, Iqbal MM, Lobell DB, Travasso MI (2014) Food security and food production systems. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part a: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, pp 485–533Google Scholar
  36. Ramírez F, Kallarackal J (2015) The effect of increasing temperature on phenology. In: Responses of fruit trees to global climate change. Springer Briefs in Plant Science. Springer, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Reilly J (1996) Agriculture in a changing climate: Impacts and adaptation. In Climate change 1995: Impacts, adaptation and mitigation of climate change:scientific-technical analysis. Contribution of a working group II to the 2nd assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (R. T. Watson, M. C. Zinyowera and R. H. Moss eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 429–467.Google Scholar
  38. Rugadya M (2010) Women’s land rights in Uganda: status of implementation of policy and law on women’s land rights for ECA, ACGS Addis Ababa. Maastricht UniversityGoogle Scholar
  39. Robertshaw D and Finch V (1976). The effects of climate change on productivity of beef cattle. In Cattle production in developing countries (A. J. Smith ed.). University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, 132–137.Google Scholar
  40. Shumetie A, Yismaw MA (2018) Effect of climate variability on crop income and indigenous adaptation strategies of households. Int J Clim Change Strateg Manag 10(4):580–595Google Scholar
  41. Sogbedji JM (1919) Maize nitrogen utilization and nitrate leaching modeling in Togo and New York. Cornell University, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Uaiene R, Arndt C, Masters W (2009) Determinants of agricultural technology adoption in Mozambique. Discussion Papers No. 67EGoogle Scholar
  43. UNDP (2010) Gender, climate change and community-based adaptation: a guidebook for designing and implementing gender-sensitive community-based adaptation programmes and projects. UNDP, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Van den Bossche P, Coetzer JAW (2008). Climate change and animal health in Africa. Review Science Technology Off. Int. Epiz, 27(2) 551–562.Google Scholar
  45. van Oort P, Zwart SJ (2017) Impacts of climate change on rice production in Africa and causes of simulated yield changes. Glob Chang Biol 24(3):1029–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Waha K, Muller C, Bondeau A, Dietrich JP, Kurukulasuriya P, Heinke J et al (2013) Adaptation to climate change through the choice of cropping system and sowing date in sub-Saharan Africa. Glob Environ Change-Hum Policy Dimens 23(1):130–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Walter O, Edgardo V, Patricia L (2010) Climate change and links to animal diseases and animal production. Conf. OIE (179-186). Retrieved on 21/6/ 2019 from http://www.oie.int./doc/gen/D11834.PDFGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thelma Akongo
    • 1
  • Charity Chonde
    • 2
  1. 1.Environment and Social Safeguards Unit, National Agricultural Research OrganisationEntebbeUganda
  2. 2.Extension Department, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesLilongweMalawi

Personalised recommendations