The Andean Farmers of Peru: Farm-Household System Vulnerability to Climate-Related Hazards

  • Mariana Vidal MerinoEmail author
  • Diana Sietz
  • Francois Jost
  • Uta Berger
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)


Agriculture in the Andes is subject to multiple climate-related risks, typical of complex mountain ecosystems. Most of the strategies used to confront or reduce these risks are based on the adaptive capital of the farm households, such as the availability of labor, extension, and distribution of agricultural land, access to markets, among others. In order to increase the adaptive capacity of farm households, it is first necessary to understand the heterogeneity of the factors that explain their vulnerability. This article presents an analysis of archetypes (patterns) of climate vulnerability based on empirical data of farm household systems in the central Andes of Peru. The study uses mixed methods, combining qualitative tools and quantitative techniques, including cluster analysis. The results demonstrate the suitability of the methodology for explaining the vulnerability of farm household systems to climate-related hazards. For the case study, seven factors explain differences in vulnerability between five archetypes of agricultural households, including agricultural area, availability of irrigation, use of different agro-ecological zones, and access to non-agricultural employment.


Vulnerability Adaptive capacity Livelihood strategies Pattern analysis Tropical Andes 



This research was conducted as part of the International Network on Climate Change in the Andean Region (INCA project), implemented by the Institute of International Forestry and Forest Products of the Technische Universitaet Dresden (TUD) and funded by the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) and by the Graduate Academy of the TUD.

Disclosure statement

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.


This work was supported by the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariana Vidal Merino
    • 1
    Email author
  • Diana Sietz
    • 2
  • Francois Jost
    • 3
  • Uta Berger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Forest Growth and Forest Computer Sciences, Technische Universitaet Dresden (TU Dresden)TharandtGermany
  2. 2.Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact ResearchPotsdamGermany
  3. 3.School of Environment and SustainabilityRoyal Roads UniversityVictoriaCanada

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