Advertisement

The Andean Farmers of Peru: Farm-Household System Vulnerability to Climate-Related Hazards

  • Mariana Vidal MerinoEmail author
  • Diana Sietz
  • Francois Jost
  • Uta Berger
Chapter
  • 40 Downloads
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)

Abstract

Agriculture in the Andes is subject to multiple climate-related risks, typical of complex mountain ecosystems. Most of the strategies used to confront or reduce these risks are based on the adaptive capital of the farm households, such as the availability of labor, extension, and distribution of agricultural land, access to markets, among others. In order to increase the adaptive capacity of farm households, it is first necessary to understand the heterogeneity of the factors that explain their vulnerability. This article presents an analysis of archetypes (patterns) of climate vulnerability based on empirical data of farm household systems in the central Andes of Peru. The study uses mixed methods, combining qualitative tools and quantitative techniques, including cluster analysis. The results demonstrate the suitability of the methodology for explaining the vulnerability of farm household systems to climate-related hazards. For the case study, seven factors explain differences in vulnerability between five archetypes of agricultural households, including agricultural area, availability of irrigation, use of different agro-ecological zones, and access to non-agricultural employment.

Keywords

Vulnerability Adaptive capacity Livelihood strategies Pattern analysis Tropical Andes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was conducted as part of the International Network on Climate Change in the Andean Region (INCA project), implemented by the Institute of International Forestry and Forest Products of the Technische Universitaet Dresden (TUD) and funded by the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) and by the Graduate Academy of the TUD.

Disclosure statement

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

Funding

This work was supported by the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD).

References

  1. Adger WN (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Change 16:268–281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnett TP, Adam JC, Lettenmaier DP (2005) Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow dominated regions. Nature 303–309.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04141
  3. Carney D (1998) Implementing the sustainable rural livelihoods approach. In: Carney D (ed) Sustainable rural livelihoods: what contribution can we make? London, pp 3–26Google Scholar
  4. Chambers R, Conway G (1992) Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century. Institute of Development StudiesGoogle Scholar
  5. Deressa T, Hassan RM, Ringler C (2008) Measuring Ethiopian farmers’ vulnerability to climate change across regional states. Food Policy 806:32Google Scholar
  6. Dixon J, Gulliver A, Gibbon D (2001) Farming systems and poverty. Improving farmers’ livelihoods in a changing world. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Easterling WE, Aggarwal PK, Batima P et al (2007) Food, fibre and forest products. In: Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, pp 273–313Google Scholar
  8. FAO, MINAGRI (2012) Plan De Gestión De Riesgo Y Adaptación Al Cambio Climático En El Sector Agrario, Período 2012–2021 (PLANGRACC-A). LimaGoogle Scholar
  9. Fellmann T (2012) The assessment of climate change related vulnerability in the agricultural sector: reviewing conceptual frameworks. SevilleGoogle Scholar
  10. Heltberg R, Siegel PB, Jorgensen SL (2009) Addressing human vulnerability to climate change: toward a “no-regrets” approach. Glob Environ Change 19:89–99.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.11.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. IGP (2005a) Atlas Climático de precipitación y temperatura del aire de la Cuenca del Río MantaroGoogle Scholar
  12. IGP (2005b) Vulnerabilidad actual y futura ante el cambio climático y medidas de adaptación en la cuenca del río MantaroGoogle Scholar
  13. IGP (2005c) Diagnóstico de la Cuenca del Mantaro bajo la visión del cambio climáticoGoogle Scholar
  14. INEI (2007) Censos Nacionals de XI Población y VI Vivienda. Sistema de consulta de resultado censales. http://censos.inei.gob.pe/cpv2007/tabulados/. Accessed 20 Apr 2001
  15. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. In: Working group II contribution to the intergovernmental panel on climate change’s fifth assessment report (WGII AR5), 31 Mar 2014Google Scholar
  16. Janssen P, Walther C, Lüdeke M (2012) Cluster analysis to understand socio-ecological systems: a guideline. PotsdamGoogle Scholar
  17. Jolliffe IT (2002) Principal component analysis, 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag New York Inc., New York, NY, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  18. Jost FP (2016) Trees in the Andes: sustainable livelihood strategies for risk reduction. Technische Universität DresdenGoogle Scholar
  19. Jost F (2017) Modeling agricultural and forestry production systems in the Andes: Identifying livelihood strategies for risk reduction through the optimization of resource allocation. ISBN 9783844031829. Shaker Verlag, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  20. Lindner A, Jost F, Vidal Merino M et al (2017) Aligning Socio-economic Field Laboratories and Agent Based Models assessing local climate change adaptation measures of Andean farmers. J For Landsc Res 2:7–17.  https://doi.org/10.13141/jflr.v2i1.77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McDonnell DJ, Dillon JL (1997) Farm management for Asia: a systems approach. Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  22. MINAM (2015) Estrategia Nacional ante el Cambio Climático. 85Google Scholar
  23. O’Brien K, Eriksen S, Nygaard LP, Schjolden ANE (2007) Why different interpretations of vulnerability matter in climate change discourses. Clim Policy 7:73–88.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2007.9685639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. PNUD (2013) Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano Perú 2013. LimaGoogle Scholar
  25. Pramova E, Monica Di G, Locatelli B (2015) Integrating adaptation and mitigation in climate change and land-use policies in Peru. Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  26. Rist S, Chiddambaranathan M, Escobar C, Wiesmann U (2006) “It was hard to come to mutual understanding …”—the multidimensionality of social learning processes concerned with sustainable natural resource use in India, Africa and Latin America. Syst Pract Action Res 19:219–237.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11213-006-9014-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Salzmann N, Huggel C, Calanca P et al (2009) Integrated assessment and adaptation to climate change impacts in the Peruvian Andes. Adv Geosci 22:35–39.  https://doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-22-35-2009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sietz D, Choque SEM, Lüdeke MKB (2012) Typical patterns of smallholder vulnerability to weather extremes with regard to food security in the Peruvian Altiplano. Reg Environ Change 12:489–505.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-011-0246-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sietz D, Ordoñez JC, Kok MTJ et al (2017) Nested archetypes of vulnerability in African drylands: where lies potential for sustainable agricultural intensification? Environ Res Lett 12:095006.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa768bCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Smit B, Burton I, Klein RJT, Wandel J (2000) An anatomy of adaptation to climate change and variability. In: Societal adaptation to climate variability and change. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 223–251Google Scholar
  31. Tucker CM, Eakin H, Castellanos EJ (2010) Perceptions of risk and adaptation: coffee producers, market shocks, and extreme weather in Central America and Mexico. Glob Environ Change 20:23–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.07.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Valdivia C, Gilles J (2001) Gender and resource management: households and groups, strategies and transitions. Agr Hum Val 18:5–9.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1007608717996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Valdivia C, Gilles JL, Jette C et al (2003) Coping and adapting to climate variability: the role of assets, networks, knowledge and institutions. In: Programs NO of G (ed) Insights and tools for adaptation: learning from climate variability. Climate and Societal Interactions, Washington, DC, pp 189–199Google Scholar
  34. Vergara W, Deeb AM, Valencia AM et al (2007) Economic impacts of rapid glacier retreat in the Andes. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 88:261–264.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007EO250001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vidal Merino M, Sietz D, Jost F, Berger U (2018) Archetypes of climate vulnerability: a mixed-method approach applied in the Peruvian Andes. Clim Dev 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2018.1442804
  36. Vilcapoma (2008) Plan de Desarrollo Local Concertado 2009–2015 del Distrito Heroínas ToledoGoogle Scholar
  37. Vuille M, Francou B, Wagnon P et al (2008) Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: past, present and future. Earth-Sci Rev 89:79–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.04.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wittmann N (2013) Non-farm and agricultural wage income in the Achamayo Region, Peru. Technische Universität DresdenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariana Vidal Merino
    • 1
    Email author
  • Diana Sietz
    • 2
  • Francois Jost
    • 3
  • Uta Berger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Forest Growth and Forest Computer Sciences, Technische Universitaet Dresden (TU Dresden)TharandtGermany
  2. 2.Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact ResearchPotsdamGermany
  3. 3.School of Environment and SustainabilityRoyal Roads UniversityVictoriaCanada

Personalised recommendations