Foot Injury: The Initial Evaluation

  • Wayne S. BerberianEmail author
  • John Hwang


Hindfoot fractures and dislocations are complex orthopedic injuries. Although talus and calcaneus fractures are the two most common tarsal bone injuries, they account for only 3% of all fractures seen. These injuries typically result from high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents or falls from heights. The initial evaluation and management of these fractures play a vital role in optimizing care and decreasing morbidity. Care should be taken to perform a thorough history and physical examination, and correct radiographic views should be obtained to optimize accuracy of diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) scanning is a vital adjunct in many of these cases. Closed fractures without skin tenting may often be managed electively. Urgent surgery is required in open fractures or in cases with impending skin necrosis, compartment syndrome, irreducible dislocation, extruded talus, or tongue-type/avulsion fractures involving the calcaneal tuberosity.


Talus Calcaneus Hindfoot Fracture Dislocation Subtalar Initial Management Evaluation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine at Seton HallNutleyUSA
  2. 2.Orthopedic OneColumbusUSA

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