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Operationalizing Local Ecological Knowledge in Climate Change Research: Challenges and Opportunities of Citizen Science

Chapter
Part of the Ethnobiology book series (EBL)

Abstract

Current research on the local impacts of climate change is based on contrasting results from the simulation of historical trends in climatic variables produced with global models against climate data from independent observations. To date, these observations have mostly consisted of weather data from standardized meteorological stations. Given that the spatial distribution of weather stations is patchy, climate scientists have called for the exploration of new data sources. Knowledge developed by Indigenous Peoples and local communities with a long history of interaction with their environment has been proposed as a data source with untapped potential to contribute to our understanding of the local impacts of climate change. In this chapter, we discuss an approach that aims to bring insights from local knowledge systems to climate change research. First, we present a number of theoretical arguments that give support to the idea that local knowledge systems can contribute in original ways to the endeavors of climate change research. Then, we explore the potential of using information and communication technologies to gather and share local knowledge of climate change impacts. We do so through the examination of a citizen science initiative aiming to collect local indicators of climate change impacts: the LICCI project (www.licci.eu). Our findings illustrate that citizen science can inspire new approaches to articulate the inclusion of local knowledge systems in climate change research. However, this requires outlining careful approaches, with high ethical standards, toward knowledge validation and recognizing that there are aspects of local ecological knowledge that are incommensurable with scientific knowledge.

Keywords

Climate change Co-production of knowledge Downscaling Ethnoclimatology Indigenous and local knowledge Information and communication technologies 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Research leading to this chapter has received funding from the Spanish government through a grant of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CSO2014-59704-P) and from the European Research Council under an ERC Consolidator Grant (FP7-771056-LICCI). García-del-Amo and Reyes-García acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, through the “María de Maeztu” program for Units of Excellence in R&D (MdM-2015-0552). Fernández-Llamazares and Cabeza acknowledge financial support from the Academy of Finland (grant agreement nrs. 311176 and 257686).

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA)Cerdanyola del VallèsSpain
  2. 2.Institut de Ciència i Tecnología Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Global Change and Conservation Lab, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS)University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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