Sources of Oxidants and Function of ROS Inside the Macromolecule Cells

  • Loutfy H. MadkourEmail author
Part of the Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology book series (NANOMED)


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a generic name given to a variety of molecules and free radicals derived from molecular oxygen. The reduction of oxygen produces relatively stable intermediates. One-electron reduction produces superoxide anion, which is the precursor of most ROS. As most commonly used, ROS in this chapter refer to superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and their derivatives such as the hydroxyl radical. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were initially recognized as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. In recent years, it has become apparent that ROS plays an important signaling role in plants, controlling processes such as growth, development, and especially response to biotic and abiotic environmental stimuli. ROS include free radicals such as superoxide anion (\( {{{\text{O}}_{ 2}}^{\mathbf{{ \bullet}} - }} \)), hydroxyl radical (\( ^{ \bullet } {\text{OH}} \)), as well as non-radical molecules like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen (1O2), and so forth. Stepwise reduction of molecular oxygen (O2) by high-energy exposure or electron transfer reactions leads to the production of the highly reactive ROS. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism and environmental factors, such as air pollutants or cigarette smoke. ROS are highly reactive molecules and can damage cell structures such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins and alter their functions.


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Highly reactive molecules \( {{{\text{O}}_{ 2}}^{\mathbf{{ \bullet}} - }} \) 1O2 \( ^{ \bullet } {\text{OH}} \) H2O2 Living organisms 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physical Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceAl Baha UniversityBaljurashiSaudi Arabia

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