Banking Time: A Dyadic Intervention to Improve Teacher-Student Relationships

  • Amanda P. WillifordEmail author
  • Robert C. Pianta


Supportive and sensitive teacher-student interactions and relationships are critical for children’s academic and social success. When a teacher establishes a warm and responsive emotional connection with a student, this increases the student’s capacity to take advantage of learning opportunities. Teacher-student relationships form over time through repeated interactions characterized by shared emotional engagement, teacher sensitivity and responsiveness, teacher support of children’s autonomy, and low levels of conflict. Strong and sensitive teacher-child relationships are particularly salient resources for children who, for various reasons (e.g., low achievement, developmental delays, or the display of externalizing or internalizing behavior problems), are likely to experience the classroom setting as socially or academically challenging. Certain children receive significantly more re-directive, corrective, and too often even negative feedback from teachers and peers during the school day. When these students experience a strong relationship with a teacher, they are more likely to accept constructive feedback from their teacher without it negatively affecting their self-esteem or viewing such feedback as an attack on their character.


Affective engagement Teacher-student relationships Teacher-student relationship intervention Banking Time Intensive intervention 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Curry School of Education and Human Development, University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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