Advertisement

Banking Time: A Dyadic Intervention to Improve Teacher-Student Relationships

  • Amanda P. WillifordEmail author
  • Robert C. Pianta
Chapter
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

Supportive and sensitive teacher-student interactions and relationships are critical for children’s academic and social success. When a teacher establishes a warm and responsive emotional connection with a student, this increases the student’s capacity to take advantage of learning opportunities. Teacher-student relationships form over time through repeated interactions characterized by shared emotional engagement, teacher sensitivity and responsiveness, teacher support of children’s autonomy, and low levels of conflict. Strong and sensitive teacher-child relationships are particularly salient resources for children who, for various reasons (e.g., low achievement, developmental delays, or the display of externalizing or internalizing behavior problems), are likely to experience the classroom setting as socially or academically challenging. Certain children receive significantly more re-directive, corrective, and too often even negative feedback from teachers and peers during the school day. When these students experience a strong relationship with a teacher, they are more likely to accept constructive feedback from their teacher without it negatively affecting their self-esteem or viewing such feedback as an attack on their character.

Keywords

Affective engagement Teacher-student relationships Teacher-student relationship intervention Banking Time Intensive intervention 

References

  1. Alamos, P., Williford, A. P., & Locasale-Crouch, J. (2018). Understanding Banking Time implementation in a sample of preschool children who display early disruptive behaviors. School Mental Health, 10, 437–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, J. A., Grant, S., & Morlock, L. (2008). The teacher-student relationship as a developmental context for children with internalizing or externalizing behavior problems. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey, C. S., Denham, S. A., & Curby, T. W. (2013). Questioning as a component of scaffolding in predicting emotion knowledge in preschoolers. Early Child Development and Care, 183, 265–279.Google Scholar
  4. Brinkmeyer, M. Y., & Eyberg, S.M. (2003). Parent-child interaction therapy for oppositional children. In Alan E. Kazdin (Ed.) Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents. (pp. 204–223) New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  5. Cappella, E., Jackson, D. R., Kim, H. Y., Bilal, C., Holland, S., & Atkins, M. S. (2016). Implementation of teacher consultation and coaching in urban schools: A mixed method study. School Mental Health, 8(2), 222–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Doumen, S., Verschueren, K., Buyse, E., Germeijs, V., Luyckx, K., & Soenens, B. (2008). Reciprocal relations between teacher–child conflict and aggressive behavior in kindergarten: A three-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 588–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Driscoll, K. C., & Pianta, R. C. (2010). Banking Time in head start: Early efficacy of an intervention designed to promote supportive teacher–child relationships. Early Education and Development, 21, 38–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Driscoll, K. C., Wang, L., Mashburn, A. J., & Pianta, R. C. (2011). Fostering supportive teacher–child relationships: Intervention implementation in a state-funded preschool program. Early Education & Development, 22, 593–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Downer, J. T., Locasale-Crouch, J., Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. (2009). Teacher characteristics associated with responsiveness and exposure to consultation and online professional development resources. Early education and development, 20, 431–455.Google Scholar
  10. Hamre, B. K. (2014). Teachers’ daily interactions with children: An essential ingredient in effective early childhood programs. Child Development Perspectives, 8(4), 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2005). Can instructional and emotional support in the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure? Child Development, 76, 949–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hatfield, B.E., & Williford, A. P. (2017). Cortisol patterns for young children displaying disruptive behavior: Links to a teacher-child, relationship-focused intervention. Prevention Science, 18, 40–49.Google Scholar
  13. LoCasale-Crouch, J., Williford, A., Whittaker, J., DeCoster, J., & Alamos, P. (2018). Does fidelity of implementation account for changes in teacher-child interactions in a randomized controlled trial of Banking Time? The Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 11, 35–55.Google Scholar
  14. O’Connor, E. E., Dearing, E., & Collins, B. A. (2011). Teacher-child relationship and behavior problem trajectories in elementary school. American Educational Research Journal, 48(1), 120–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pianta, R. C. (1999). Enhancing relationships between children and teachers. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pianta, R. C., & Hamre, B. (2001). Students, teachers, and relationship support (STARS). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  17. Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., & Allen, J. P. (2012). Teacher-student relationships and engagement: Conceptualizing, measuring, and improving the capacity of classroom interactions. In Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 365–386). New York, NY: Springer US.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., & Williford, A. P. (2011). Banking Time (Unpublished manual). University of Virginia.Google Scholar
  19. Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., & Newcomer, L. (2016). The brief student–teacher classroom interaction observation: Using dynamic indicators of behaviors in the classroom to predict outcomes and inform practice. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 42(1), 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rhoad-Drogalis, A., Justice, L. M., Sawyer, B. E., & O’Connell, A. A. (2018). Teacher–child relationships and classroom-learning behaviours of children with developmental language disorders. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 53(2), 324–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sabol, T. J., & Pianta, R. C. (2012). Recent trends in research on teacher–child relationships. Attachment & Human Development, 14(3), 213–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Van Acker, R., Grant, S. H., & Henry, D. (1996). Teacher and student behavior as a function of risk for aggression. Education & Treatment of Children, 19, 316–334.Google Scholar
  23. Vancraeyveldt, C., Verschueren, K., Wouters, S., Van Craeyevelt, S., Van den Noortgate, W., & Colpin, H. (2015). Improving teacher-child relationship quality and teacher-rated behavioral adjustment among externalizing preschoolers: Effects of a two-component intervention. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Williford, A. P., Carter, L. M., & Pianta, R. C. (2016). Attachment and school readiness. In J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (Eds.), The handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  25. Williford, A. P., LoCasale-Crouch, J., Whittaker, J. V., DeCoster, J., Hartz, K. A., Carter, L. M., … Hatfield, B. E. (2017). Changing teacher-child dyadic interactions to improve preschool children’s externalizing behaviors. Child Development, 88, 1544–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Williford, A. P., Wolcott, C. S., Whittaker, J. E., & LoCasale-Crouch, J. (2015). Classroom and teacher characteristics predicting the implementation of Banking Time with preschoolers who display disruptive behaviors. Prevention Science, 16(8), 1054–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Curry School of Education and Human Development, University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations