Advertisement

Interventions to Enhance Affective Engagement

  • Clayton R. CookEmail author
  • Andrew Jordan Thayer
  • Aria Fiat
  • Margaret Sullivan
Chapter
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

Educators have the ability to strategically and intentionally improve student affective engagement in school through supports that (a) induce more positive emotional experiences to broaden and build students’ academic engagement and performance, (b) mitigate negative emotional experiences that undermine affective engagement (e.g., bullying and punitive experiences), and (c) equip students with the skills to regulate their emotions in the face of the social and academic demands of school. This chapter provides a general overview of the need for and nature of interventions that promote student academic engagement, as well as discusses specific universal prevention programs and intensive interventions that can be organized and delivered through a multitiered framework to promote student affective engagement.

Keywords

Affective engagement Belonging Teacher-student relationships School connectedness Tier 1 intervention Targeted intervention Establish-Maintain-Restore (EMR) Social-emotional learning Bullying prevention 

References

  1. Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (2006). The school leader’s guide to student learning supports: New directions for addressing barriers to learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  2. Allday, R. A., Hinkson-Lee, K., Hudson, T., Neilsen-Gatti, S., Kleinke, A., & Russel, C. S. (2012). Training general educators to increase behavior-specific praise: Effects on students with EBD. Behavioral Disorders, 37(2), 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, J. P., Pianta, R. C., Gregory, A., Mikami, A. Y., & Lun, J. (2011). An interaction-based approach to enhancing secondary school instruction and student achievement. Science, 333(6045), 1034–1037.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, A. R., Christenson, S. L., Sinclair, M. F., & Lehr, C. A. (2004). Check & Connect: The importance of relationships for promoting engagement with school. Journal of School Psychology, 42(2), 95–113.Google Scholar
  5. Anfara, V. A., Jr., Evans, K. R., & Lester, J. N. (2013). Restorative justice in education: What we know so far. Middle School Journal, 44(5), 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., Kim, D., & Reschly, A. L. (2006). Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the Student Engagement Instrument. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 427–445.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, J. A. (2006). Contributions of teacher–child relationships to positive school adjustment during elementary school. Journal of School Psychology, 44(3), 211–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  10. Barrett, P. (2010). My friends-youth resilience program: Group leaders’ manual for youth. Brisbane, QLD: Pathways Health and Research Centre.Google Scholar
  11. Bierman, K. L. (2011). The promise and potential of studying the “invisible hand” of teacher influence on peer relations and student outcomes: A commentary. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32(5), 297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borum, R., Cornell, D. G., Modzeleski, W., & Jimerson, S. R. (2010). What can be done about school shootings? A review of the evidence. Educational Researcher, 39(1), 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bottiani, J. H., Bradshaw, C. P., & Mendelson, T. (2014). Promoting an equitable and supportive school climate in high schools: The role of school organizational health and staff burnout. Journal of School Psychology, 52(6), 567–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brackett, M. A., Caruso, D. R., & Stern, R. (2006). Anchors of emotional intelligence. New Haven, CT: Emotionally Intelligent Schools, LLC.Google Scholar
  15. Brackett, M. A., & Rivers, S. E. (2014). Transforming students’ lives with social and emotional learning. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.), International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 368–388). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 130(5), e1136–e1145.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brophy, J. E., & Good, T. L. (1974). Teacher-student relationships: Causes and consequences. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, E. C., Low, S., Smith, B. H., & Haggerty, K. P. (2011). Outcomes from a school-randomized controlled trial of STEPS to RESPECT: A bullying prevention program. School Psychology Review, 40(3), 423–443.Google Scholar
  20. Cairns, L. G. (1987). Behavior problems. In M. J. Dunkin (Ed.), International encyclopedia of teaching and teacher education (pp. 446–452). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  21. Cameron, L., & Thorsborne, M. (2001). Restorative justice and school discipline: Mutually exclusive? In J. Braithwaite & H. Strang (Eds.), Restorative justice and civil society (pp. 180–194). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Carter, P. L., Skiba, R., Arredondo, M. I., & Pollock, M. (2017). You can’t fix what you don’t look at: Acknowledging race in addressing racial discipline disparities. Urban Education, 52(2), 207–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Christenson, S. L., Reschly, A. L., & Wylie, C. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of research on student engagement. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  24. Christenson, S. L., Thurlow, M. L., Sinclair, M. F., Lehr, C. A., Kaibel, C. M., Reschly, A. L., … Pohl, A. (2008). Check & Connect: A comprehensive student engagement intervention manual. Minneapolis, MN: Institute on Community Integration (NJ3).Google Scholar
  25. Cohen, J., McCabe, L., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, practice, and teacher education. Teachers College Record, 111(1), 180–213.Google Scholar
  26. Cook, C. R., Coco, S., Zhang, Y., Fiat, A., Duong, M., Renshaw, T., Long, A.C., & Frank, S. (2018). Cultivating positive teacher-student relationships: Evaluation of the establish, maintain, and restore (EMR) method. School Psychology Review, 47, 226–243.Google Scholar
  27. Cook, C. R., Duong, M. T., McIntosh, K., Fiat, A. E., Larson, M., Pullmann, M. D., & McGinnis, J. (2018). Addressing discipline disparities for Black male students: Linking malleable root causes to feasible and effective practices. School Psychology Review, 47(2), 135–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cook, C. R., Fiat, A., Larson, M., Daikos, C., Slemrod, T., Holland, E. A., … Renshaw, T. (2018). Positive greetings at the door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(3), 149–159.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300717753831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cook, C. R., Frye, M., Slemrod, T., Lyon, A. R., Renshaw, T. L., & Zhang, Y. (2015). An integrated approach to universal prevention: Independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on youths’ mental health. School Psychology Quarterly, 30(2), 166–183.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cook, C. R., Grady, E. A., Long, A. C., Renshaw, T., Codding, R. S., Fiat, A., & Larson, M. (2017). Evaluating the impact of increasing general education teachers’ ratio of positive-to-negative interactions on students’ classroom behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19(2), 67–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), 65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cook, C. R., Xie, S. R., Earl, R. K., Lyon, A. R., Dart, E., & Zhang, Y. (2015). Evaluation of the courage and confidence mentor program as a tier 2 intervention for middle school students with identified internalizing problems. School Mental Health, 7(2), 132–146.Google Scholar
  33. Cornell, D. (2014). The Authoritative School Climate Survey and the School Climate Bullying Survey: Description and research summary. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia, Virginia Youth Violence Project.Google Scholar
  34. Cornell, D., Sheras, P., Gregory, A., & Fan, X. (2009). A retrospective study of school safety conditions in high schools using the Virginia threat assessment guidelines versus alternative approaches. School Psychology Quarterly, 24(2), 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cornell, D. G., Allen, K., & Fan, X. (2012). A randomized controlled study of the Virginia student threat assessment guidelines in kindergarten through grade 12. School Psychology Review, 41(1), 100.Google Scholar
  36. Cornell, D. G., & Sheras, P. L. (2006). Guidelines for responding to student threats of violence. Boston, MA: Sopris West Educational Services.Google Scholar
  37. Crone, D. A., Hawken, L. S., & Horner, R. H. (2010). Responding to problem behavior in schools: The Behavior Education Program. New York, NY/London, UK: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  38. Crosnoe, R., Johnson, M. K., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (2004). Intergenerational bonding in school: The behavioral and contextual correlates of student-teacher relationships. Sociology of Education, 77(1), 60–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dart, E. H., Furlow, C. M., Collins, T. A., Brewer, E., Gresham, F. M., & Chenier, K. H. (2015). Peer-mediated Check-In/Check-Out for students at-risk for internalizing disorders. School Psychology Quarterly, 30(2), 229–243.Google Scholar
  40. Delaney-Black, V., Covington, C., Ondersma, S. J., Nordstrom-Klee, B., Templin, T., Ager, J., … Sokol, R. J. (2002). Violence exposure, trauma, and IQ and/or reading deficits among urban children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156(3), 280–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Devine, J. F., & Cohen, J. (2007). Making your school safe: Strategies to protect children and promote learning. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  42. Dishion, T. J., Kim, H., & Tein, J. Y. (2015). Friendship and adolescent problem behavior: Deviancy training and coercive joining as dynamic mediators. In T. P. Beauchaine & S. P. Hinshaw (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of externalizing spectrum disorders (pp. 303–311). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Dolan, R. J. (2002). Emotion, cognition, and behavior. Science, 298(5596), 1191–1194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Domitrovich, C. E., Bradshaw, C. P., Greenberg, M. T., Embry, D., Poduska, J. M., & Ialongo, N. S. (2010). Integrated models of school-based prevention: Logic and theory. Psychology in the Schools, 47(1), 71–88.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Driscoll, K. C., & Pianta, R. C. (2010). Banking time in head start: Early efficacy of an intervention designed to promote supportive teacher–child relationships. Early Education and Development, 21(1), 38–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Duckworth, A. L., & Yeager, D. S. (2015). Measurement matters: Assessing personal qualities other than cognitive ability for educational purposes. Educational Researcher, 44(4), 237–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Duong, M. T., Pullmann, M. D., Buntain-Ricklefs, J., Lee, K., Benjamin, K. S., Nguyen, L., & Cook, C. R. (2019). Brief teacher training improves student behavior and student–teacher relationships in middle school. School Psychology Quarterly, 34(2), 212–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3–4), 327–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2011). Promoting social and emotional development is an essential part of students’ education. Human Development, 54(1), 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48(2), 90–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ervin, R. A., Miller, P. M., & Friman, P. C. (1996). Feed the hungry bee: Using positive peer reports to improve the social interactions and acceptance of a socially rejected girl in residential care. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29(2), 251–253.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Evans, S. W., & Weist, M. D. (2004). Commentary: Implementing empirically supported treatments in the schools: What are we asking? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7(4), 263–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Every Student Succeeds Act, 20 U.S.C. §§ 6301 et seq. (2015).Google Scholar
  55. Finn, J. D., & Rock, D. A. (1997). Academic success among students at risk for school failure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 221–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Flora, S. R. (2000). Praise’s magic reinforcement ratio: Five to one gets the job done. The Behavior Analyst Today, 1(4), 64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fowler, L. T. S., Banks, T. I., Anhalt, K., Der, H. H., & Kalis, T. (2008). The association between externalizing behavior problems, teacher-student relationship quality, and academic performance in young urban learners. Behavioral Disorders, 33, 167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fredricks, J., McColskey, W., Meli, J., Mordica, J., Montrosse, B., & Mooney, K. (2011). Measuring student engagement in upper elementary through high school: A description of 21 instruments. Issues & answers. REL 2011-No. 098. Greensboro, NC: Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast.Google Scholar
  59. Fredricks, J. A., & McColskey, W. (2012). The measurement of student engagement: A comparative analysis of various methods and student self-report instruments. In Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 763–782). Boston, MA: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fredrickson, B. (2001). The role of positive emotion in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotion. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47(1), 1–53.Google Scholar
  62. Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13(2), 172–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Freedman, B. J., Rosenthal, L., Donahoe, C. P., Jr., Schlundt, D. G., & McFall, R. M. (1978). A social-behavioral analysis of skill deficits in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescent boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(6), 1448–1462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T. L., Smith, D. C., & O’Malley, M. D. (2014). Preliminary development and validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey for secondary school students. Social Indicators Research, 117(3), 1011–1032.Google Scholar
  65. Furrer, C. J., Skinner, E. A., & Pitzer, J. R. (2014). The influence of teacher and peer relationships on students’ classroom engagement and everyday resilience. In D. J. Shernoff & J. Bempechat (Eds.), National Society for the Study of Education yearbook. Engaging youth in schools: Empirically-based models to guide future innovations (Vol. 113, pp. 101–123). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College.Google Scholar
  66. Glick, B., & Goldstein, A. P. (1987). Aggression replacement training. Journal of Counseling & Development, 65(7), 356–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Goodenow, C. (1991, April). The sense of belonging and its relationship to academic motivation among pre- and early adolescent students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED335151).Google Scholar
  68. Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (2000). The timing of divorce: Predicting when a couple will divorce over a 14-year period. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(3), 737–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Green, O. H. (1992). Positive and negative emotions. In The emotions (pp. 171–189). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  70. Greenberg, M. T., & Abenavoli, R. (2017). Universal interventions: Fully exploring their impacts and potential to produce population-level impacts. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(1), 40–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gresham, F. M. (1981). Social skills training with handicapped children: A review. Review of Educational Research, 51(1), 139–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gresham, F. M. (1986). Conceptual and definitional issues in the assessment of children’s social skills: Implications for classifications and training. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 15(1), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gresham, F. M., Van, M. B., & Cook, C. R. (2006). Social skills training for teaching replacement behaviors: Remediating acquisition deficits in at-risk students. Behavioral Disorders, 31(4), 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher–child relationships and the trajectory of children’s school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72(2), 625–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hawken, L. S., Adolphson, S. L., Macleod, K. S., & Schumann, J. (2009). Secondary-tier interventions and supports. In G. D. Sailor, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 395–420). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Heckman, J. J., & Kautz, T. (2012). Hard evidence on soft skills. Labour Economics, 19(4), 451–464.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Heckman, J. J., & Masterov, D. V. (2007). The productivity argument for investing in young children. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 29(3), 446–493.Google Scholar
  78. Henry, K. L., & Huizinga, D. H. (2007). School-related risk and protective factors associated with truancy among urban youth placed at risk. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 28(6), 505–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hidi, S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2000). Motivating the academically unmotivated: A critical issue for the 21st century. Review of Educational Research, 70(2), 151–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2015). School-Wide PBIS: An example of applied behavior analysis implemented at a scale of social importance. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 8(1), 80–85.Google Scholar
  81. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A. W., & Esperanza, J. (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 133–144.Google Scholar
  82. Hughes, J., & Kwok, O. M. (2007). Influence of student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships on lower achieving readers’ engagement and achievement in the primary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 39–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hunter, K. K., Chenier, J. S., & Gresham, F. M. (2014). Evaluation of Check In/Check Out for students with internalizing behavior problems. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 22(3), 135–148.Google Scholar
  84. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 (2004).Google Scholar
  85. Jaycox, L. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral intervention for trauma in schools. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jenkins, J. M., & Oatley, K. (1996). Emotional episodes and emotionality through the life span. In C. Magai & S. H. McFadden (Eds.), Handbook of emotion, adult development, and aging (pp. 421–442). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kazdin, A. E., & Blasé, S. L. (2011). Rebooting psychotherapy research and practice to reduce the burden of mental illness. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 21–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kendall, P. C., & Hedtke, K. A. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth: Therapist manual. Ardmore, PA: Workbook Publishing.Google Scholar
  89. Kring, A. M., & Sloan, D. M. (Eds.). (2009). Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  90. Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Lynn, N. (2006). School-based mental health: An empirical guide for decision-makers. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.Google Scholar
  91. Langley, A. K., Gonzalez, A., Sugar, C. A., Solis, D., & Jaycox, L. (2015). Bounce back: Effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention for multicultural children exposed to traumatic events. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(5), 853–865.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. LaRusso, M. D., Romer, D., & Selman, R. L. (2008). Teachers as builders of respectful school climates: Implications for adolescent drug use norms and depressive symptoms in high school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(4), 386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press on Demand.Google Scholar
  94. Levenson, R. W. (1994). Human emotion: A functional view. In The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions (Vol. 1, pp. 123–126). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Levin, H. M. (2012). More than just test scores. Prospects, 42(3), 269–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2002a). Contextual social–cognitive mediators and child outcome: A test of the theoretical model in the Coping Power Program. Development and Psychopathology, 14(4), 945–967.Google Scholar
  97. Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2002b). The Coping Power Program at the middle-school transition: Universal and indicated prevention effects. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16(4S), S40–S54.Google Scholar
  98. Maag, J. W. (2001). Rewarded by punishment: Reflections on the disuse of positive reinforcement in schools. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 173–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Maggin, D. M., Zurheide, J., Pickett, K. C., & Baillie, S. J. (2015). A systematic evidence review of the Check-In/Check-Out program for reducing student challenging behaviors. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(4), 197–208.Google Scholar
  100. Mattison, E., & Aber, M. S. (2007). Closing the achievement gap: The association of racial climate with achievement and behavioral outcomes. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40(1–2), 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McDaniel, S. C., & Bruhn, A. L. (2016). Using a changing-criterion design to evaluate the effects of Check-In/Check-Out with goal modification. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(4), 197–208.Google Scholar
  102. Miller, F. G., Cook, C. R., & Zhang, Y. (2018). Initial development and evaluation of the student intervention matching (SIM) form. Journal of School Psychology, 66, 11–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Miller, L. M., Dufrene, B. A., Sterling, H. E., Olmi, D. J., & Bachmayer, E. (2015). The effects of Check-In/Check-Out on problem behavior and academic engagement in elementary school students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(1), 28–38.Google Scholar
  104. Moote, G. T., Jr., Smyth, N. J., & Wodarski, J. S. (1999). Social skills training with youth in school settings: A review. Research on Social Work Practice, 9(4), 427–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. National Research Council. (2013). Education for life and work: Developing transferable knowledge and skills in the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  106. National Research Council, Institute of Medicine. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. In Board on children, youth, and families, division of behavioral and social sciences and education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  107. Nekvasil, E. K., & Cornell, D. G. (2012). Student reports of peer threats of violence: Prevalence and outcomes. Journal of School Violence, 11(4), 357–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nekvasil, E. K., & Cornell, D. G. (2015). Student threat assessment associated with safety in middle schools. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 2(2), 98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nock, M. K., & Mendes, W. B. (2008). Physiological arousal, distress tolerance, and social problem-solving deficits among adolescent self-injurers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(1), 28–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Okonofua, J. A., Walton, G. M., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2016). A vicious cycle: A social–psychological account of extreme racial disparities in school discipline. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(3), 381–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Olweus, D., & Limber, S. P. (2010). Bullying in school: Evaluation and dissemination of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(1), 124–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Osher, D., Kidron, Y., Brackett, M., Dymnicki, A., Jones, S., & Weissberg, R. P. (2016). Advancing the science and practice of social and emotional learning: Looking back and moving forward. Review of Research in Education, 40(1), 644–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Owens, J. S., Lyon, A. R., Brandt, N. E., Warner, C. M., Nadeem, E., Spiel, C., & Wagner, M. (2014). Implementation science in school mental health: Key constructs in a developing research agenda. School Mental Health, 6(2), 99–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Panorama Education. (2018). Social-emotional learning panorama assessment and playbook. Retrieved July 29, 2018, from https://www.panoramaed.com/social-emotional-learning
  115. Pianta, R. C. (2001). STRS: Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: Professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  116. Proctor, R. W., & Dutta, A. (1995). Skill acquisition and human performance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
  117. Quin, D. (2017). Longitudinal and contextual associations between teacher–student relationships and student engagement: A systematic review. Review of Educational Research, 87(2), 345–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Renshaw, T. L., Long, A. C., & Cook, C. R. (2015). Assessing adolescents’ positive psychological functioning at school: Development and validation of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire. School Psychology Quarterly, 30(4), 534–552.Google Scholar
  119. Reschly, A. L., & Christenson, S. L. (2012). Jingle, jangle, and conceptual haziness: Evolution and future directions of the engagement construct. In Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 3–19). Boston, MA: Springer US.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ruus, V. R., Veisson, M., Leino, M., Ots, L., Pallas, L., Sarv, E. S., & Veisson, A. (2007). Students’ well-being, coping, academic success, and school climate. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 35(7), 919–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Satcher, D. (2000). Mental health: A report of the surgeon general—executive summary. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(1), 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Scherer, K. R. (2001). Appraisal considered as a process of multilevel sequential checking. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 92–120). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Shochet, I. M., Dadds, M. R., Ham, D., & Montague, R. (2006). School connectedness is an underemphasized parameter in adolescent mental health: Results of a community prediction study. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35(2), 170–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sinclair, M. F., Christenson, S. L., Evelo, D. L., & Hurley, C. M. (1998). Dropout prevention for youth with disabilities: Efficacy of a sustained school engagement procedure. Exceptional Children, 65(1), 7–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sinclair, M. F., Christenson, S. L., & Thurlow, M. L. (2005). Promoting school completion of urban secondary youth with emotional or behavioral disabilities. Exceptional Children, 71(4), 465–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Spectrum K12 School Solutions. (2011). Response to Intervention Adoption Survey 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2019, from http://www.spectrumk12.com/rti/the_rti_corner/rti_adoption_report
  128. Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things: Parent–adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., & Holder, A. M. B. (2008). Racial microaggressions in the life experience of Black Americans. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39, 329–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2002). The evolution of discipline practices: School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 24(1–2), 23–50.Google Scholar
  131. Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 62–83.Google Scholar
  132. Surber, C. F. (1984). Issues in using quantitative rating scales in developmental research. Psychological Bulletin, 95(2), 226–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). The predictive efficiency of school bullying versus later offending: A systematic/meta-analytic review of longitudinal studies. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21(2), 80–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. United States. President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: Transforming mental health care in America. Rockville, MD: President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health.Google Scholar
  135. Voelkl, K. E. (1997). Identification with school. American Journal of Education, 105(3), 294–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Voight, A., Hanson, T., O’Malley, M., & Adekanye, L. (2015). The racial school climate gap: Within-school disparities in students’ experiences of safety, support, and connectedness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 56(3–4), 252–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wagner, M., & Davis, M. (2006). How are we preparing students with emotional disturbances for the transition to young adulthood? Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study—2. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14(2), 86–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wang, M. T., & Degol, J. L. (2016). School climate: A review of the construct, measurement, and impact on student outcomes. Educational Psychology Review, 28(2), 315–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 202–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Williford, A. P., Maier, M. F., Downer, J. T., Pianta, R. C., & Howes, C. (2013). Understanding how children’s engagement and teachers’ interactions combine to predict school readiness. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 299–309.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wilson, D. B., Gottfredson, D. C., & Najaka, S. S. (2001). School-based prevention of problem behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 17(3), 247–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wolfe, K., Pyle, D., Charlton, C. T., Sabey, C. V., Lund, E. M., & Ross, S. W. (2016). A systematic review of the empirical support for check-in check-out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(2), 74–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wu, J. Y., Hughes, J. N., & Kwok, O. M. (2010). Teacher–student relationship quality type in elementary grades: Effects on trajectories for achievement and engagement. Journal of School Psychology, 48(5), 357–387.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindsets that promote resilience: When students believe that personal characteristics can be developed. Educational Psychologist, 47(4), 302–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Yeager, D. S., & Walton, G. M. (2011). Social-psychological interventions in education: They’re not magic. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 267–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Zins, J. E., Bloodworth, M. R., Weissberg, R. P., & Walberg, H. J. (2007). The scientific base linking social and emotional learning to school success. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 17(2–3), 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clayton R. Cook
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrew Jordan Thayer
    • 2
  • Aria Fiat
    • 1
  • Margaret Sullivan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.School Psychology Program, University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations