Advertisement

Experimental Characterization of a Commercial Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery for Telecom Applications

  • Federico Baronti
  • Roberto Di Rienzo
  • Roberto Roncella
  • Gianluca Simonte
  • Roberto SalettiEmail author
Conference paper
  • 14 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 627)

Abstract

Preliminary results coming from the experimental characterization of a commercial Sodium-Nickel chloride battery for telecom applications are shown in this paper. The battery was instrumented to collect all the possible current, voltage and temperature data from the paralled strings that constitute it. The aim is to have a better insight of a battery technology that seems an appealing candidate as alternative to Li-ion technology in some stationary applications. Charge/discharge cycles carried out with different loads show that the entire battery energy cannot fully be exploited at low load currents, when the internal battery heater dissipation is not negligible, and at high loads, when the internal dissipation leads to a dangerous increase of the internal temperature and to the battery disconnection. Pulse current tests useful for the validation of improved battery models are finally shown.

Keywords

Sodium-nickel chloride battery Battery Management Systems Battery modeling 

References

  1. 1.
    Bhatt DK, El Darieby M (2018) An assessment of batteries form battery electric vehicle perspectives. In: 2018 6th IEEE international conference on smart energy grid engineering, SEGE 2018, pp 255–259Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hueso KB, Palomares V, Armand M, Rojo T (2017) Challenges and perspectives on high and intermediate-temperature sodium batteries. Nano Res 10(12):4082–4114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gruber PW, Medina PA, Keoleian GA, Kesler SE, Everson MP, Wallington TJ (2011) Global lithium availability: a constraint for electric vehicles? J Ind Ecol 15(5):760–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Capasso C, Veneri O (2014) Experimental analysis of a zebra battery based propulsion system for urban bus under dynamic conditions. Energy Procedia 61:1138–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Sullivan TM, Bingham CM, Clark RE (2006) Zebra battery technologies for the all electric smart car. In: International symposium on power electronics, electrical drives, automation and motion, 2006. SPEEDAM 2006, Nov 2006, pp 244–248Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lu X, Yang Z (2014) Molten salt batteries for medium- and large-scale energy storageGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bignucolo F, Coppo M, Crugnola G, Savio A (2017) Application of a simplified thermal-electric model of a sodium-nickel chloride battery energy storage system to a real case residential prosumer. Energies 10(10):1497Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Restello S, Lodi G, Miraldi AK (2012) Sodium nickel chloride batteries for telecom application: a solution to critical high energy density deployment in telecom facilities. In: INTELEC, international telecommunications energy conference (proceedings), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Restello S, Spa F, Maggiore M, Zanon N, Spa F, Maggiore M (2013) Sodium nickel batteries for telecom hybrid power systems. 2. Sodium nickel chloride technology, vol 2, pp 324–328Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lu X, Coffey G, Meinhardt K, Sprenkle V, Yang Z, Lemmon JP (2010) High power planar sodium-nickel chloride battery, pp 7–13Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lu X, Li G, Kim JY, Lemmon JP, Sprenkle VL, Yang Z (2013) A novel low-cost sodium-zinc chloride battery. Energy Environ Sci 6(6):1837–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chang HJ, Lu X, Bonnett JF, Canfield NL, Son S, Park YC, Jung K, Sprenkle VL, Li G (2018) “Ni-less” cathodes for high energy density, intermediate temperature Na-NiCl\(_2\) batteries. Adv Mater Interfaces 5(10):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Benato R, Dambone Sessa S, Necci A, Palone F (2016) A general electric model of sodium-nickel chloride battery. In: AEIT 2016—international annual conference: sustainable development in the Mediterranean area, energy and ICT networks of the futureGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sudworth JL (2001) The sodium/nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery. J Power Sources 100(1–2):149–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morello R, Di Rienzo R, Roncella R, Saletti R, Baronti F (2018) Hardware-in-the-loop platform for assessing battery state estimators in electric vehicles. IEEE AccessGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dung LR, Chen CE, Yuan HF (2016) A robust, intelligent CC-CV fast charger for aging lithium batteries. In: IEEE international symposium on industrial electronicsGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Musio M, Damiano A (2015) A non-linear dynamic electrical model of sodium-nickel chloride batteries. In: 2015 international conference on renewable energy research and applications, ICRERA 2015Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Federico Baronti
    • 1
  • Roberto Di Rienzo
    • 1
  • Roberto Roncella
    • 1
  • Gianluca Simonte
    • 1
  • Roberto Saletti
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’InformazioneUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations