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Adipocytes in the Tumour Microenvironment

  • Nikitha K. Pallegar
  • Sherri L. ChristianEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1234)

Abstract

Adipose tissue contribution to body mass ranges from 6% in male athletes to over 25% in obese men and over 30% in obese women. Crosstalk between adipocytes and cancer cells that exist in close proximity can lead to changes in the function and phenotype of both cell types. These interactions actively alter the tumour microenvironment (TME). Obesity is one of the major risk factors for multiple types of cancer, including breast cancer. In obesity, the increase in both size and number of adipocytes leads to instability of the TME, as well as increased hypoxia within the TME, which further enhances tumour invasion and metastasis. In this chapter, we will discuss the diverse aspects of adipocytes and adipocyte-derived factors that affect the TME as well as tumour progression and metastasis. In addition, we discuss how obesity affects the TME. We focus primarily on breast cancer but discuss what is known in other cancer types when relevant. We finish by discussing the studies needed to further understand these complex interactions.

Keywords

Tumour microenvironment Adipocytes Obesity Paracrine/autocrine signaling Adipokines Lipid metabolites Breast cancer Metastasis Epithelial to mesenchymal transition Mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition Extracellular matrix (ECM) Hypoxia Chronic inflammation ECM remodeling 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

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