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Quantifying the Effect of Autonomous Demand Response Program on Self-Scheduling of Multi-carrier Residential Energy Hub

  • Amin Namvar
  • Farhad Samadi GazijahaniEmail author
  • Javad Salehi
Chapter
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

In this chapter, an overall model is proposed for energy management in the form of energy hub for residential sectors to reduce the operating costs and air pollution by utilization of different technologies such as renewables and demand response (DR) resources. In so doing, a residential building has been considered as an energy hub that receives natural gas and electricity at its inputs and delivers electricity and heat to consumers at its output. Also, the consumers include controllable and uncontrollable loads that controllable loads are controlled by the DR program. The main goal of this chapter is to lower the costs of operation and air pollution of the energy hub. The results show that when the price of natural gas is low, the energy hub uses natural gas to supply electric and thermal demands, and when the price of electricity is low, it uses electricity to feed consumers’ demand.

Keywords

Energy hub DR program Energy management Renewable energy Power market 

Nomenclature

Sets and Indices

c

Index of controllable loads

ce

Index of carbon emission

ch

Index of charging

dch

Index of discharging

e

Index of power

es

Index of energy storage

g

Index of natural gas

GB

Index of gas boiler

h

Index of heat

l

Index of load

Net

Index of network

t

Index of time (h)

uc

Index of uncontrollable loads

Parameters

αt

Natural gas distribution coefficient between CHP and Boiler

ηCHP, e

Efficiency of CHP power generation

ηCHP, h

Efficiency of CHP heat generation

ηe, L

Efficiency of electric loads

ηes, ch

Energy storage charge efficiency

ηes, dch

Energy storage discharge efficiency

ηGB

Efficiency of heat generation by boiler

ηh, L

Efficiency of thermal loads

μ

Mean value of sunlight

πce

Price of carbon emission (cent/kW)

\( {\pi}_{\mathrm{e}}^t \)

Price of purchasing power (cent/kW)

\( {\pi}_{\mathrm{g}}^t \)

Price of purchasing natural gas (cent/kW)

σ

Standard deviation

\( {C}_{\mathrm{CHP}}^{\mathrm{max}} \)

Maximum natural gas imported into CHP (kW)

DSMt

Participation of load in the proposed DSM at t

Ec, e

Energy consumed by controllable electric loads in 24 h (kWh)

Ec, h

Energy consumed by controllable thermal loads in 24 h (kWh)

\( {E}_{\mathrm{es}}^0 \)

Initial value of energy storage SOC (kWh)

\( {E}_{\mathrm{es}}^{\mathrm{max}} \)

Upper bound of energy storage SOC (kWh)

\( {E}_{\mathrm{es}}^{\mathrm{min}} \)

Lower bound of energy storage SOC (kWh)

FF

Fill factor

\( {H}_{\mathrm{max}}^t \)

Upper bound of controllable thermal loads at t (kW)

\( {H}_{\mathrm{min}}^t \)

Lower bound of controllable thermal loads at t (kW)

\( {H}_{\mathrm{uc}}^t \)

Uncontrollable thermal loads at t (kW)

IMpp

Current at maximum power point (A)

Isc

Short circuit current (A)

Ki

Current temperature coefficient (A °C)

KMPPT

Maximum power temperature coefficient

Kv

Voltage temperature coefficient (V °C)

lDSMt

Load curtailed by DSM program at period t

Loadt

Load after DSM running at t (kW)

\( {\mathrm{Load}}_0^t \)

Load before DSM running at t (kW)

NOT

Nominal operating temperature of cell (°C)

\( {P}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{ch}}^{\mathrm{max}} \)

Upper bound of energy storage charging (kW)

\( {P}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{dch}}^{\mathrm{max}} \)

Upper bound of energy storage discharging (kW)

\( {P}_{\mathrm{max}}^t \)

Upper bound of controllable electric loads at t (kW)

\( {P}_{\mathrm{min}}^t \)

Lower bound of controllable electric loads at t (kW)

PPV

Output power of solar panel (kW)

PSTC

Output power of solar panel at standard test conditions (kW)

Psy

Output power of the PV module during state y (kW)

\( {P}_{\mathrm{uc}}^t \)

Uncontrollable electric loads at t (kW)

s

Solar radiation

say

Average solar irradiance of state y

SSTC

Solar irradiance at standard test conditions

TA

Temperature of ambient (°C)

Tcy

Cell temperature over state y (°C)

VMPP

Voltage at maximum power point (V)

Voc

Open-circuit voltage (V)

Variables

\( {E}_{\mathrm{es}}^{24} \)

SOC of battery at hour 24 (kWh)

\( {E}_{\mathrm{es}}^t \)

SOC of battery at t (kWh)

\( {G}_{\mathrm{Net}}^t \)

Imported natural gas at t (kW)

\( {H}_{\mathrm{c}}^t \)

Controllable thermal loads at t (kW)

\( {H}_{\mathrm{CHP}}^t \)

Heat generated by CHP at t (kW)

\( {H}_{\mathrm{GB}}^t \)

Heat generated by boiler at t (kW)

\( {H}_{\mathrm{hs},\mathrm{ch}}^t \)

Charged heat of heat storage at t (kW)

\( {H}_{\mathrm{hs},\mathrm{dch}}^t \)

Discharged heat of heat storage at t (kW)

\( {H}_{\mathrm{L}}^t \)

Total thermal loads at t (kW)

\( {l}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{ch}}^t/{l}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{dch}}^t \)

Binary values preventing battery from charging/discharging simultaneously

\( {P}_{\mathrm{c}}^t \)

Controllable electric loads at t (kW)

\( {P}_{\mathrm{CHP}}^t \)

Power generated by CHP at t (kW)

\( {P}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{ch}}^t \)

Charged power of energy storage at t (kW)

\( {P}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{dch}}^t \)

Discharged power of energy storage at t (kW)

\( {P}_{\mathrm{L}}^t \)

Total electric loads at t (kW)

\( {P}_{\mathrm{Net}}^t \)

Power imported from grid at t (kW)

Functions

C

Total objective function (cent)

Cce

Cost of carbon emission (cent)

Ce

Cost of purchasing power (cent)

Cg

Cost of purchasing natural gas (cent)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amin Namvar
    • 1
  • Farhad Samadi Gazijahani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Javad Salehi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringAzarbaijan Shahid Madani UniversityTabrizIran

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