Electricity Markets pp 91-112 | Cite as

# Quantifying the Effect of Autonomous Demand Response Program on Self-Scheduling of Multi-carrier Residential Energy Hub

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## Abstract

In this chapter, an overall model is proposed for energy management in the form of energy hub for residential sectors to reduce the operating costs and air pollution by utilization of different technologies such as renewables and demand response (DR) resources. In so doing, a residential building has been considered as an energy hub that receives natural gas and electricity at its inputs and delivers electricity and heat to consumers at its output. Also, the consumers include controllable and uncontrollable loads that controllable loads are controlled by the DR program. The main goal of this chapter is to lower the costs of operation and air pollution of the energy hub. The results show that when the price of natural gas is low, the energy hub uses natural gas to supply electric and thermal demands, and when the price of electricity is low, it uses electricity to feed consumers’ demand.

## Keywords

Energy hub DR program Energy management Renewable energy Power market## Nomenclature

## Sets and Indices

- c
Index of controllable loads

- ce
Index of carbon emission

- ch
Index of charging

- dch
Index of discharging

- e
Index of power

- es
Index of energy storage

- g
Index of natural gas

- GB
Index of gas boiler

- h
Index of heat

- l
Index of load

- Net
Index of network

*t*Index of time (h)

- uc
Index of uncontrollable loads

## Parameters

*α*_{t}Natural gas distribution coefficient between CHP and Boiler

*η*_{CHP, e}Efficiency of CHP power generation

*η*_{CHP, h}Efficiency of CHP heat generation

*η*_{e, L}Efficiency of electric loads

*η*_{es, ch}Energy storage charge efficiency

*η*_{es, dch}Energy storage discharge efficiency

*η*_{GB}Efficiency of heat generation by boiler

*η*_{h, L}Efficiency of thermal loads

*μ*Mean value of sunlight

*π*_{ce}Price of carbon emission (cent/kW)

- \( {\pi}_{\mathrm{e}}^t \)
Price of purchasing power (cent/kW)

- \( {\pi}_{\mathrm{g}}^t \)
Price of purchasing natural gas (cent/kW)

*σ*Standard deviation

- \( {C}_{\mathrm{CHP}}^{\mathrm{max}} \)
Maximum natural gas imported into CHP (kW)

- DSM
^{t} Participation of load in the proposed DSM at

*t**E*_{c, e}Energy consumed by controllable electric loads in 24 h (kWh)

*E*_{c, h}Energy consumed by controllable thermal loads in 24 h (kWh)

- \( {E}_{\mathrm{es}}^0 \)
Initial value of energy storage SOC (kWh)

- \( {E}_{\mathrm{es}}^{\mathrm{max}} \)
Upper bound of energy storage SOC (kWh)

- \( {E}_{\mathrm{es}}^{\mathrm{min}} \)
Lower bound of energy storage SOC (kWh)

- FF
Fill factor

- \( {H}_{\mathrm{max}}^t \)
Upper bound of controllable thermal loads at

*t*(kW)- \( {H}_{\mathrm{min}}^t \)
Lower bound of controllable thermal loads at

*t*(kW)- \( {H}_{\mathrm{uc}}^t \)
Uncontrollable thermal loads at

*t*(kW)*I*_{Mpp}Current at maximum power point (A)

*I*_{sc}Short circuit current (A)

*K*_{i}Current temperature coefficient (A

^{°}C)*K*_{MPPT}Maximum power temperature coefficient

*K*_{v}Voltage temperature coefficient (V

^{°}C)- lDSM
^{t} Load curtailed by DSM program at period

*t*- Load
^{t} Load after DSM running at

*t*(kW)- \( {\mathrm{Load}}_0^t \)
Load before DSM running at

*t*(kW)*N*_{OT}Nominal operating temperature of cell (°C)

- \( {P}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{ch}}^{\mathrm{max}} \)
Upper bound of energy storage charging (kW)

- \( {P}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{dch}}^{\mathrm{max}} \)
Upper bound of energy storage discharging (kW)

- \( {P}_{\mathrm{max}}^t \)
Upper bound of controllable electric loads at

*t*(kW)- \( {P}_{\mathrm{min}}^t \)
Lower bound of controllable electric loads at

*t*(kW)*P*_{PV}Output power of solar panel (kW)

*P*_{STC}Output power of solar panel at standard test conditions (kW)

*P*_{sy}Output power of the PV module during state

*y*(kW)- \( {P}_{\mathrm{uc}}^t \)
Uncontrollable electric loads at

*t*(kW)*s*Solar radiation

*s*_{ay}Average solar irradiance of state

*y**S*_{STC}Solar irradiance at standard test conditions

*T*_{A}Temperature of ambient (°C)

*T*_{cy}Cell temperature over state

*y*(°C)*V*_{MPP}Voltage at maximum power point (V)

*V*_{oc}Open-circuit voltage (V)

## Variables

- \( {E}_{\mathrm{es}}^{24} \)
SOC of battery at hour 24 (kWh)

- \( {E}_{\mathrm{es}}^t \)
SOC of battery at

*t*(kWh)- \( {G}_{\mathrm{Net}}^t \)
Imported natural gas at

*t*(kW)- \( {H}_{\mathrm{c}}^t \)
Controllable thermal loads at

*t*(kW)- \( {H}_{\mathrm{CHP}}^t \)
Heat generated by CHP at

*t*(kW)- \( {H}_{\mathrm{GB}}^t \)
Heat generated by boiler at

*t*(kW)- \( {H}_{\mathrm{hs},\mathrm{ch}}^t \)
Charged heat of heat storage at

*t*(kW)- \( {H}_{\mathrm{hs},\mathrm{dch}}^t \)
Discharged heat of heat storage at

*t*(kW)- \( {H}_{\mathrm{L}}^t \)
Total thermal loads at

*t*(kW)- \( {l}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{ch}}^t/{l}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{dch}}^t \)
Binary values preventing battery from charging/discharging simultaneously

- \( {P}_{\mathrm{c}}^t \)
Controllable electric loads at

*t*(kW)- \( {P}_{\mathrm{CHP}}^t \)
Power generated by CHP at

*t*(kW)- \( {P}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{ch}}^t \)
Charged power of energy storage at

*t*(kW)- \( {P}_{\mathrm{es},\mathrm{dch}}^t \)
Discharged power of energy storage at

*t*(kW)- \( {P}_{\mathrm{L}}^t \)
Total electric loads at

*t*(kW)- \( {P}_{\mathrm{Net}}^t \)
Power imported from grid at

*t*(kW)

## Functions

*C*Total objective function (cent)

*C*_{ce}Cost of carbon emission (cent)

*C*_{e}Cost of purchasing power (cent)

*C*_{g}Cost of purchasing natural gas (cent)

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