Electricity Markets pp 213-228 | Cite as

# Optimal Scheduling of Water Distribution Systems’ Participation in Demand Response and Frequency Regulation Services

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## Abstract

Water distribution systems (WDSs) are energy-intensive substructures that consume energy to deliver water to consumers. WDSs are able to provide demand response in power systems due to the existence of water storage tanks and variable speed pumps. Reducing operating costs and losses are the main outcomes of demand response programs which would lead to more economical operation of the system. In this chapter, a model for optimizing the participation of WDSs in the demand response market is presented, and the uncertainty of the energy price forecast is considered using Robust Optimization Approach. The objective of the optimization is to find the best schedule for operation of water tanks and pumps, in which the WDS’s water purchase cost is minimized and the WDS’s profit for providing the demand response services is maximized. The proposed model is implemented on a test WDS. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

## Keywords

Water distribution system (WDSs) Demand response (DR) Frequency regulation services Energy flexibility## References

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