Typical Parkinson’s Disease Phenomenology

  • Steven J. FruchtEmail author
  • Pichet Termsarasab


The phenomenology of Parkinson’s disease was first described 7000 years ago and eloquently summarized 200 years ago by James Parkinson. Careful attention to the history and examination helps highlight the four cardinal features of Parkinson’s disease (tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural impairment), as well as alerting the clinician to the possibility of disorder mimicking Parkinson’s disease.


Parkinson’s disease Tremor Rigidity Bradykinesia Postural impairment 

Supplementary material

Video 3.1

The videos of this chapter summarize the clinical phenomenology of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). The video is divided into seven segments: mild atremulous PD; tremor-predominant PD; cranial-predominant PD; young-onset hemi-PD; genetic forms of PD; advanced PD; and unusual phenomena in PD (MP4 3195422 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Movement DisordersNew York University Grossman School of Medicine, The Marlene and Paolo Fresco Institute for Parkinson’s and Movement Disorders, NYU Langone HealthNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Neurology, Faculty of MedicineRamathibodi Hospital, Mahidol UniversityBangkokThailand

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