Thyroid Eye Disease (TED)

  • Jeffrey NeradEmail author
  • Trevor Smith


Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune condition with an active and inactive phase resulting in proptosis, eyelid retraction, and periorbital edema of varying severity. Symptoms range from mild eye irritation to vision loss from compressive optic neuropathy requiring medical and possibly acute surgical intervention. Active disease typically lasts one to three years before burn-out occurs; reactivation and irreversible vision loss is uncommon. An ophthalmologist can be of unique benefit to the patient in three valuable ways: (1) early diagnosis and referral for systemic treatment, (2) protection against the vision threatening effects of the disease, and (3) restoration of the patient’s natural appearance.


Graves’ ophthalmopathy Graves’ orbitopathy Thyroid-associated orbitopathy Graves’ disease Immunotherapy Orbital radiotherapy Rituximab Teprotumumab Decompression Thyroid eye disease 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cincinnati Eye InstituteCincinnatiUSA

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