Punctal Stenosis

  • Erfan El-GazayerliEmail author


Lacrimal punctal stenosis, despite being a common cause of epiphora, is frequently missed and often misdiagnosed. Moreover, available management guidelines are inconsistent and lack integrity. This chapter provides an understanding review of the pathophysiology, etiology, clinical grading and diagnosis of this punctal disorder. It also offers an integrated management approach, underlining relevant and valid treatment modalities for the different grades of this disease.


Punctal stenosis Dacryotoxicity Snip procedures 



The author wishes to thank Moataz Dabees, fellow oculoplastics at Magrabi eye hospital, Cairo, Egypt for his contribution in research and editing work.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oculoplastic Surgery UnitMagrabi Eye HospitalCairoEgypt

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