Lacrimal punctal stenosis, despite being a common cause of epiphora, is frequently missed and often misdiagnosed. Moreover, available management guidelines are inconsistent and lack integrity. This chapter provides an understanding review of the pathophysiology, etiology, clinical grading and diagnosis of this punctal disorder. It also offers an integrated management approach, underlining relevant and valid treatment modalities for the different grades of this disease.
KeywordsPunctal stenosis Dacryotoxicity Snip procedures
The author wishes to thank Moataz Dabees, fellow oculoplastics at Magrabi eye hospital, Cairo, Egypt for his contribution in research and editing work.
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