Advertisement

Forest Dynamics in the Argentinean Patagonian Andes: Lessons Learned from Dendroecology

  • Ana M. SrurEmail author
  • Mariano M. Amoroso
  • Ignacio Mundo
  • Mariano S. Morales
  • Milagros Rodríguez-Catón
  • Valeria Aschero
  • Ricardo Villalba
Chapter
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

The study of forest dynamics over large temporal and spatial scales has widely benefited from dendrochronological techniques. Patagonia is home to several long-lived tree species (Austrocedrus chilensis, Araucaria araucana, Fitzroya cupressoides, Nothofagus dombeyi and N. pumilio) with well-defined tree rings suitable for reconstructing tree establishment, mortality, spatio-temporal growth patterns and disturbance regimes with annual resolution. The first dendrochronological studies in the region date back to the 1950s and had a strong emphasis on hydroclimatology. It was not until the last few decades that studies using dendroecological techniques began to emerge. In this chapter, we review the experience gained by the tree-ring lab at IANIGLA (CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina) and colleagues from other institutions over the past 30 years applying dendroecological techniques to understand the role of climate and disturbances (insect outbreaks, snow avalanches, windblows, fires and decline) on forest dynamics. For each case, we summarized the process, and the dendrocronological methods used. In this way, it was possible to detect those gaps of knowledge that still can be explored using dendroecological methods in the Patagonian forests of Argentina.

Keywords

IANIGLA tree ring lab Climate variability Disturbances 

References

  1. Allen CD, Macalady AK, Chenchouni H et al (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. For Ecol Manag 259:660–684.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amoroso MM (2009) Stand development patterns as a consequence of the decline in Austrocedrus chilensis forests. University of British Columbia, Doctoral DissertationGoogle Scholar
  3. Amoroso MM, Daniels LD (2010) Cambial mortality in declining Austrocedrus chilensis forests: implications for stand dynamics studies. Can J For Res 40:885–893.  https://doi.org/10.1139/X10-042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amoroso MM, Larson BC (2010) Stand development patterns as a consequence of the mortality in Austrocedrus chilensis forests. For Ecol Manag 259:1981–1992.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.02.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amoroso MM, Daniels LD, Larson BC (2012a) Temporal patterns of radial growth in declining Austrocedrus chilensis forests in Northern Patagonia: the use of tree-rings as an indicator of forest decline. For Ecol Manag 265:62–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.10.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amoroso MM, Suarez ML, Daniels LD (2012b) Nothofagus dombeyi regeneration in declining Austrocedrus chilensis forests: effects of overstory mortality and climatic events. Dendrochronologia 30:105–112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dendro.2010.12.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amoroso MM, Villalba R, Ruiz M et al (2013) Wave regeneration after wind blowdowns in Nothofagus forests in southern Patagonia. Paper presented at the Second American Dendrochronology Conference – AmeriDendro. Tucson, 13–17 May 2013Google Scholar
  8. Amoroso MM, Daniels LD, Villalba R et al (2015) Does drought incite tree decline and death in Austrocedrus chilensis forests? J Veg Sci 26:1171–1183.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Amoroso MM, Radins M, Villalba R et al (2016) Wind blowdown history in Nothofagus forests in southern Patagonia. Paper presented at the Third American Dendrochronology Conference – AmeriDendro. Mendoza, 28–31 March 2016Google Scholar
  10. Amoroso MM, Daniels LD, Baker PJ et al (eds) (2017a) Dendroecology: tree-ring analyses applied to ecological studies, vol 231. Springer, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Amoroso MM, Rodríguez-Catón M, Villalba R et al (2017b) Forest decline in Northern Patagonia: the role of climatic variability. In: Amoroso MM, Daniels LD, Baker PJ et al (eds) Dendroecology: tree-ring analyses applied to ecological studies. Springer, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  12. Aravena JC, Luckman BH (2009) Spatio-temporal rainfall patterns in southern South America. Int J Climatol 29:2106–2120.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baker PJ (2003) Tree age estimation for the tropics: a test from the southern Appalachians. Ecol Appl 13:1718–1732.  https://doi.org/10.1890/02-5025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baker PJ, Bunyavejchewin S, Oliver C et al (2005) Disturbance history and historical stand dynamics of a seasonal tropical forest in western Thailand. Ecol Monogr 75:317–343.  https://doi.org/10.1890/04-0488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bigler C, Bugmann H (2004) Predicting the time of tree death using dendrochronological data. Ecol Appl 14:902–914.  https://doi.org/10.1890/03-5011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonan GB (2008) Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320:1444–1449.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1155121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown PM (2006) Climate effects on fire regimes and tree recruitment in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests. Ecology 87:2500–2510.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[2500:ceofra]2.0.co;2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Burns BR (1993) Fire-induced dynamics of Araucaria araucana-Nothofagus antarctica forest in the Southern Andes. J Biogeogr 20:669–685.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2845522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burrows CJ, Burrows VL (1976) Procedures for the study of snow avalanche chronology using growth layers (annual rings) of woody plants. Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research. Occas Pap 23(54)Google Scholar
  20. Calí SG (1996) Austrocedrus chilensis: estudio de los anillos de crecimiento y su relación con la dinámica del “Mal del Ciprés” en el P.N. Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Undergraduate Thesis, Universidad Nacional del ComahueGoogle Scholar
  21. Camarero JJ, Bigler C, Linares JC et al (2011) Synergistic effects of past historical logging and drought on the decline of Pyrenean silver fir forests. For Ecol Manag 262:759–769.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.05.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carrara PE (1979) The determination of snow avalanche frequency through tree-ring analysis and historical Records at Ophir, Colorado. Geol Soc Am Bull 90(8):773–780.  https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1979)90<773:TDOSAF>2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Casteller A, Christen M, Villalba R et al (2008) Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 8:433–443.  https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-b-000073411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Casteller A, Villalba R, Mayer A et al (2009) Reconstrucción espacial y temporal de la ocurrencia de avalanchas de nieve en los Andes patagónicos utilizando técnicas dendrocronológicas. Rev Chil Hist Nat 82:245–264.  https://doi.org/10.4067/s0716-078x2009000200007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Casteller A, Villalba R, Araneo D et al (2011) Reconstructing temporal patterns of snow avalanches at Lago del Desierto, southern Patagonian Andes. Cold Reg Sci Technol 67:68–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2011.02.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cherubini P, Fontana G, Rigling D et al (2002) Tree-life history prior to death: two fungal root pathogens affect tree-ring growth differently. J Ecol 90:839–850.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2002.00715.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Agostini AM (1941) Andes Patagonicos. In: Viajes De Exploración a La Cordillera Patagónica Austral, Peuser, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  28. Duncan RP (1989) An evaluation of errors in tree age estimates based on increment cores in kahikatea (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides). NZ Nat Sci 16(3):31–37Google Scholar
  29. Eskuche U (1973) Estudios fitosociológicos en el norte de Patagonia. I. Investigación de algunos factores de ambiente en comunidades de bosque y de chaparral. Phytocoenologia 1:64–113Google Scholar
  30. Frangi JL, Barrera MD, Puigdefábregas J et al (2005) Ecología de los bosques de Tierra del Fuego. In: Arturi MF, Frangi JL, Goya JF (eds) Ecología y manejo de bosques nativos de Argentina. Editorial Universidad Nacional de la Plata, La Plata, pp 1–88Google Scholar
  31. Frelich LE (2002) Forest dynamics and disturbance regimes: studies from temperate evergreen-deciduous forests. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Fritts HC, Swetnam TW (1989) Dendroecology: a tool for evaluating variations in past and present forest environments. In: Begon M, Fitter AH, Ford ED et al (eds) Advances in ecological research, vol 19. Academic Press, London, pp 111–188Google Scholar
  33. Garreaud RD, Vuille M, Compagnucci R et al (2009) Present-day South American climate. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl 281:180–195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.10.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gers E, Florin N, Gartner H (2001) Application of shrubs for dendrogeomorphological analysis to reconstruct spatial and temporal landslide movement patterns-A preliminary study. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie Supplementband 125:163–175Google Scholar
  35. Girardin MP, Tardif J, Bergeron Y (2001) Radial growth analysis of Larix laricina from the Lake Duparquet area, Quebec, in relation to climate and larch sawfly outbreaks. Ecoscience 8:127–138.  https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2001.11682638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. González ME, Lara A (2015) Large fires in the Andean Araucaria forests: when a natural ecological process becomes a threat. Orix Int J Conserv 49:394.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605315000599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. González ME, Veblen TT, Sibold JS (2005) Fire history of Araucaria-Nothofagus forests in Villarrica National Park, Chile. J Biogeogr 32:1187–1202.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01262.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. González ME, Amoroso M, Lara A et al (2014) Ecología de disturbios y su influencia en los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina. In: Ecología Forestal: Bases para el Manejo Sustentable y Conservación de los Bosques Nativos de Chile, p 411–502Google Scholar
  39. Harley G, Baisan C, Brown P et al (2018) Advancing dendrochronological studies of fire in the United States. Fire 1:11.  https://doi.org/10.3390/fire1010011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hartmann H, Messier C (2008) The role of forest tent caterpillar defoliations and partial harvest in the decline and death of sugar maple. Ann Bot 102:377–387.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcn104CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Holz A, Paritsis J, Mundo IA et al (2017) Southern annular mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South America. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:9552–9557.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1705168114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hough AF, Forbes RD (1943) The ecology and silvics of forests in the high plateau of Pennsylvania. Ecol Monogr 13:299–320.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1943224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Johnson EA, Gutsell SL (1994) Fire frequency models, methods and interpretations. In: Begon M, Fitter AH (eds) Advances in ecological research. Academic Press, United Kingdom, pp 239–287Google Scholar
  44. Kipfmueller KF, Swetnam TW (2001) Using dendrochronology to reconstruct the history of forest and woodland ecosystems. In: Egan D, Howell EA (eds) The historical ecology handbook: a restorationist’s guide to reference ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, D.C., pp 199–228Google Scholar
  45. Kitzberger T, Veblen TT (1997) Influences of humans and ENSO on fire history of Austrocedrus chilensis woodlands in northern Patagonia, Argentina. Écoscience 4:508–520.  https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.1997.11682430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kitzberger T, Veblen TT, Villalba R (1997) Climatic influences on fire regimes along a rain forest-to-xeric woodland gradient in northern Patagonia, Argentina. J Biogeogr 24:35–47.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.1997.tb00048.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kitzberger T, Steinaker DF, Veblen TT (2000) Effects of climatic variability on facilitation of tree establishment in northern Patagonia. Ecology 81:1914–1924.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[1914:EOCVOF]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lara A, Villalba R, Aravena JC et al (2000) Desarrollo de una red de cronologías de Fitzroya cupressoides (alerce) para Chile y Argentina. In: Roig F (ed) Dendrocronología en América Latina. EDIUNC, Mendoza, pp 217–244Google Scholar
  49. Lorimer CG (1980) Age structure and disturbance history of a southern Appalachian virgin forest. Ecology 61:1169–1184.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1936836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Losada S, Amoroso MM, Bogino SM (2018) Regeneration dynamics of Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi in declining forests. Bosque 39:333–345.  https://doi.org/10.4067/s0717-92002018000200333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Manion PD (1991) Tree disease concepts. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  52. Manion PD, Lachance D (1992) Forest decline concepts: an overview. In: Manion PD, Lachance D (eds) Forest decline concepts. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, pp 181–190Google Scholar
  53. Mast JN, Veblen TT (1994) A dendrochronological method of studying tree mortality patterns. Phys Geogr 15:529–542.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.1994.10642533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McDowell NG, Ryan MG, Zeppel MJ et al (2013) Improving our knowledge of drought-induced forest mortality through experiments, observations, and modeling. New Phytol 200:289–293.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mohr-Bell D (2015) Superficies afectadas por incendios en la región Bosque Andino Patagónico durante los veranos de 2013–2014 y 2014–2015. SAyDS-CIEFAP, Nodo Regional Bosque Andino PatagónicoGoogle Scholar
  56. Morales M, Villalba R (2009) Anillos de árboles como evidencias de ataques de insectos defoliadores en la Patagonia. Bol Soc Entomol Argent 20:13–14Google Scholar
  57. Morales MS, Villalba R, Srur A et al (2004) Buscando el anillo perdido: efecto del ataque de cuncuna (Ormiscodes sp.) en bosques de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio), El Chaltén, Santa Cruz. II Reunión Binacional de Ecología Argentino-Chilena. MendozaGoogle Scholar
  58. Mundo IA (2011) Historia de incendios en bosques de Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch de Argentina a través de un análisis dendroecológico. Tesis Doctoral, Universidad Nacional de La PlataGoogle Scholar
  59. Mundo IA, Barrera MD, Roig FA (2007) Testing the utility of Nothofagus pumilio for dating a snow avalanche in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Dendrochronologia 25(1):19–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dendro.2007.01.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mundo IA, El Mujtar VA, Perdomo MH et al (2010a) Austrocedrus chilensis growth decline in relation to drought events in northern Patagonia, Argentina. Trees 24:561–570.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-010-0427-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mundo I, Morales M, Casteller A et al (2010b) Influences of past climate variations on forest disturbance in Patagonia. II International symposium, “Reconstructing climate variations in South America and the Antarctic Peninsula over the last 2000 years”, ValdiviaGoogle Scholar
  62. Mundo IA, Kitzberger T, Roig JFA et al (2013) Fire history in the Araucaria araucana forests of Argentina: human and climate influences. Int J Wildland Fire 22:194–206.  https://doi.org/10.1071/WF11164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mundo IA, Holz A, González ME et al (2017a) Fire history and fire regimes shifts in Patagonian temperate forests. In: Amoroso MM, Daniels LD, Baker PJ, Camarero JJ (eds) Dendroecology: tree-ring analyses applied to ecological studies. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 211–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mundo IA, Villalba R, Veblen TT et al (2017b) Fire history in southern Patagonia: human and climate influences on fire activity in Nothofagus pumilio forests. Ecosphere.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1932
  65. Mutarelli E, Orfila E (1973) Algunos resultados de las investigaciones de manejo silvicultural que se realizan en los bosques andino-patagónicos de Argentina. Rev For Argent 17(3):69–75Google Scholar
  66. Overpeck JT, Whitlock C, Huntley B (2003) Terrestrial biosphere dynamics in the climate system: past and future. In: Bradley RS, Pedersen TF, Alverson KD, Bergmann KF (eds) Paleoclimate, global change and the future. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  67. Paine RT, Levin SA (1981) Intertidal landscapes: disturbance and the dynamics of pattern. Ecol Monogr 51:145–178.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2937261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Palacios M (2013) Reconstrucción dendrocronológica de ataques de cuncuna (Ormiscodes amphimone) en bosques de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) en El Chaltén, Santa Cruz. Undergraduate Thesis. Universidad Nacional de CuyoGoogle Scholar
  69. Paritsis J, Veblen TT (2010) Temperature and foliage quality affect performance of the outbreak defoliator Ormiscodes amphimone (F.)(Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Rev Chil Hist Nat 83(4):593–603.  https://doi.org/10.4067/S0716-078X2010000400012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Paritsis J, Veblen TT (2011) Dendroecological analysis of defoliator outbreaks on Nothofagus pumilio and their relation to climate variability in the Patagonian Andes. Glob Chang Biol 17(1):239–253.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02255.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Paritsis J, Veblen TT, Kitzberger T (2009) Assessing dendroecological methods to reconstruct defoliator outbreaks on Nothofagus pumilio in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Can J For Res 39(9):1617–1629.  https://doi.org/10.1139/X09-085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pedersen BS (1998) Modeling tree mortality in response to short- and long-term environmental stresses. Ecol Model 105(2–3):347–351.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3800(97)00162-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pederson N (2010) External characteristics of old trees in the eastern deciduous Forest. Nat Areas J 30(4):396–407.  https://doi.org/10.3375/043.030.0405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pretzsch H (2009) Forest dynamics, growth and yield. From measurement to model. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Puigdefábregas J, Gallart F, Bianciotto O et al (1999) Banded vegetation patterning in a subantarctic forest of Tierra del Fuego, as an outcome on the interaction between wind and tree growth. Acta Oecol 20(3):135–146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1146-609X(99)80027-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Quezada JM (2008) Historia de incendios en bosques de Araucaria araucana (Mol.) Koch del Parque Nacional Villarrica, a partir de anillos de crecimiento y registros orales. Tesina de grado, Universidad Austral de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias ForestalesGoogle Scholar
  77. Rayback SA (1998) A dendrogeomorphological analysis of snow avalanches in the Colorado Front Range, USA. Phys Geogr 19:502–515.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.1998.10642664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rebertus AJ, Veblen TT (1993) Partial wave formation in old-growth Nothofagus forests on Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Bull Torrey Bot Club 120:461–470.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2996751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rebertus AJ, Kitzberger T, Veblen TT et al (1997) Blowdown history and landscape patterns in the Andes of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Ecology 78(3):678–692.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1997)078[0678:BHALPI]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Relva MA, Westerholm CL, Kitzberger T (2009) Effects of introduced ungulates on forest understory communities in northern Patagonia are modified by timing and severity of stand mortality. Plant Ecol 201:11–22.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-008-9528-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rodríguez-Catón M, Villalba R, Srur AM et al (2015) Long-term trends in radial growth associated with Nothofagus pumilio forest decline in Patagonia: integrating local-into regional-scale patterns. For Ecol Manag 339:44–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.12.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rodríguez-Catón M, Villalba R, Morales M et al (2016) Influence of droughts on Nothofagus pumilio forest decline across northern Patagonia, Argentina. Ecosphere 7(7):e01390.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ruiz M (2013) Reconstrucción de volteos por vientos en los valles del Río Toro, y del Río de las Vueltas (El Chaltén, provincia de Santa Cruz) a través del análisis de los anillos de crecimiento de Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl.) Krasser (lenga). Undergraduate Thesis, Universidad Nacional de CuyoGoogle Scholar
  84. Schneider C, Gies D (2004) Effects of El Niño–southern oscillation on southernmost South America precipitation at 53°S revealed from NCEP–NCAR reanalysis and weather station data. Int J Climatol 24(9):1057–1076.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schulman E (1954) Longevity under adversity in conifers. Science 119(3091):396–399.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.119.3091.396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Schweingruber FH (1988) Tree rings: basics and applications of dendrochronology. D. Reidel Publishing Company, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  87. Smith L (1973) Indication of snow avalanche periodicity through interpretation of vegetation patterns in the north cascades, Washington. In: Methods of avalanche control on Washington mountain highways- third annual report, Washington State Highway Commission Department of Highways, Olympia, Washington, DC, p 187Google Scholar
  88. Speer JH (2010) Fundamentals of tree-ring research. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  89. Srur AM, Villalba R, Villagra PE et al (2004) Estructura y dinámica del bosque de Nothofagus pumilio a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal en El Chaltén, Santa Cruz. In: II Reunión Binacional de Ecología. XI Reunión de la Sociedad de Ecología de Chile y XXI Reunión Argentina de Ecología (Mendoza)Google Scholar
  90. Srur AM, Villalba R, Villagra PE et al (2008) Influencias de las variaciones en el clima y en la concentración de C02 sobre el crecimiento de Nothofagus pumilio en la Patagonia. Rev Chil Hist Nat 81(2):239–256.  https://doi.org/10.4067/S0716-078X2008000200007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Srur AM, Villalba R, Rodríguez-Catón M et al (2016) Establishment of Nothofagus pumilio at upper treelines across a precipitation gradient in the northern Patagonian Andes. Arct Antarct Alp Res 48(4):755–766.  https://doi.org/10.1657/AAAR0016-015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Srur AM, Villalba R, Rodríguez-Catón M et al (2018) Climate and Nothofagus pumilio establishment at upper treelines in the Patagonian Andes. Front Earth Sci 6:57.  https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2018.00057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stoffel M, Bollschweiler M (2008) Tree-ring analysis in natural hazards research? An overview. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 8(2):187–202.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-8-187-2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Suarez ML, Kitzberger T (2010) Differential effects of climate variability on forest dynamics along a precipitation gradient in northern Patagonia. J Ecol 98(5):1023–1034.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01698.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Suarez ML, Ghermandi L, Kitzberger T (2004) Factors predisposing episodic drought-induced tree mortality in Nothofagus-site, climatic sensitivity and growth trends. J Ecol 92(6):954–966.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2004.00941.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Swetnam TW, Baisan CH (1996) Historical fire regime patterns in the southwestern United States since AD 1700. In: Allen CD (ed) Fire effects in southwestern forest: proceedings of the 2nd La Mesa fire symposium. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, pp 11–32Google Scholar
  97. Turner MG (2010) Disturbance and landscape dynamics in a changing world. Ecology 91(10):2833–2849.  https://doi.org/10.1890/10-0097.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Veblen TT (1989) Tree regeneration responses to gaps along a transandean gradient. Ecology 70(3):541–543.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1940197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Veblen TT, Ashton DH (1978) Catastrophic influences on the vegetation of the Valdivian Andes, Chile. Vegetatio 36(3):149–167.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02342598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Veblen TT, Lorenz DC (1987) Post-fire stand development of Austrocedrus-Nothofagus forests in northern Patagonia. Vegetatio 71:113–126.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00044825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Veblen TT, Lorenz DC (1988) Recent vegetation changes along the forest/steppe ecotone of northern Patagonia. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 78:93–111.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1988.tb00193.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Veblen TT, Burns BR, Kitzberger TT et al (1995) The ecology of the conifers of southern South America. In: Enright N, Hill R (eds) Ecology of the southern conifers. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, pp 87–126Google Scholar
  103. Veblen TT, Kitzberger T, Burns RB et al (1996) Perturbaciones y regeneración en bosques andinos del sur de Chile y Argentina. In: Armesto JJ, Arroyo MK, Villagrán J (eds) Ecología del Bosque Nativo de Chile. Universidad de Chile Press, Santiago, pp 169–198Google Scholar
  104. Veblen TT, Kitzberger T, Villalba R et al (1999) Fire history in Northern Patagonia: the roles of humans and climatic variation. Ecol Monogr 69:47–67.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9615(1999)069[0047:FHINPT]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Veblen TT, Kitzberger T, Villalba R (2004) Nuevos paradigmas en ecología y su influencia sobre el conocimiento de la dinámica de bosques del sur de Argentina y Chile. In: Arturi MF, Frangi JL, Goya JF (eds) Ecología y manejo de bosques nativos de Argentina. Editorial Universidad Nacional de la Plata, La Plata, pp 1–48Google Scholar
  106. Veblen TT, Kitzberger T, Villalba R (2005) Nuevos paradigmas en ecología y su influencia sobre el conocimiento de la dinámica de los bosques del sur de Argentina y Chile. In: Arturo M, Frangi J, Goya JF (eds) Ecología y Manejo de los Bosques de Argentina. Editorial de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, Buenos Aires, p 48Google Scholar
  107. Veblen TT, Holz A, Paritsis J et al (2011) Adapting to global environmental change in Patagonia: what role for disturbance ecology? Austral Ecol 36(8):891–903.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2010.02236.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Villalba R (1997) Climatic influences on forest dynamics along the forest-steppe ecotone in northern Patagonia, ArgentinaGoogle Scholar
  109. Villalba R, Veblen TT (1997a) Regional patterns of tree population age structures in northern Patagonia: climatic and disturbance influences. J Ecol 85(2):113–124.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2960643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Villalba R, Veblen TT (1997b) Improving estimates of total tree ages based on increment core samples. Ecoscience 4(4):534–542.  https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.1997.11682433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Villalba R, Veblen TT (1998) Influences of large-scale climatic variability on episodic tree mortality in northern Patagonia. Ecology 79(8):2624–2640.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[2624:IOLSCV]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Villalba R, Boninsegna JA, Veblen TT et al (1997) Recent trends in tree-ring records from high elevation sites in the Andes of northern Patagonia. In: Climatic change at high elevation sites. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 193–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. White PS, Pickett STA (1985) Natural disturbance and patch dynamics: an introduction. In: Pickett S, White P (eds) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  114. Wolkovich EM, Cook BI, McLauchlan KK et al (2014) Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene. Ecol Lett 17(11):1365–1379.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Yocom Kent L (2014) An evaluation of fire regime reconstruction methods. Ecological restoration institute and southwest fire science consortium. Northern Arizona University, FlagstaffGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana M. Srur
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mariano M. Amoroso
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ignacio Mundo
    • 1
    • 4
  • Mariano S. Morales
    • 1
  • Milagros Rodríguez-Catón
    • 5
  • Valeria Aschero
    • 1
    • 4
  • Ricardo Villalba
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Dendrocronología e Historia Ambiental. IANIGLA, Centro Científico Tecnológico CONICET MendozaMendozaArgentina
  2. 2.Centro Científico Tecnológico CONICET Patagonia NorteSan Carlos de BarilocheArgentina
  3. 3.Instituto de Investigaciones en Recursos Naturales, Agroecología y Desarrollo Rural (IRNAD), Sede Andina, Universidad Nacional de Río NegroViedmaArgentina
  4. 4.Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y NaturalesUniversidad Nacional de CuyoMendozaArgentina
  5. 5.Lamont-Doherty Earth ObservatoryColumbia UniversityPalisadesUSA

Personalised recommendations