Advertisement

The Future of Face Recognition Technology and Ethico: Legal Issues

  • Ian Berle
Chapter
  • 25 Downloads
Part of the Law, Governance and Technology Series book series (LGTS, volume 41)

Abstract

This chapter summarises the impact of face recognition technology on privacy and confidentiality and looks to the future of FRT in terms of its technical developments, and the main ethico-legal issues that may arise. Moreover, the use of FRT by commercial enterprises and governments is divergent when, opposing interests occur between the lawmakers and the public, and between the public and commercial enterprises. The future of FRT should, and to some extent shall, also be shaped by its ethical acceptability and legal regulation. Ultimately, an individual’s identity is intimately tied up with their face, and direct technological recognition by the facial contours will be a continuing issue of social concern and sensitivity.

References

  1. Adams B (2011) Legal Theft: Florida DMV Makes Millions Legally Selling Personal Information. https://www.theblaze.com/news/2011/07/29/legal-theft-florida-dmv-makes-millions-legally-selling-personal-information. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  2. ADDPRIV (2011) Automatic Data Relevancy Discrimination for a Privacy-sensitive video surveillance. ‘Review of existing smart video surveillance systems capable of being integrated with ADDPRIV project’. Deliverable 2.1 Gdansk. pp. 8, 69 http://www.addpriv.eu/uploads/public%20_deliverables/149%2D%2DADDPRIV_20113107_WP2_GDANSK_Scoreboard_R11.pdf. Cached on Google 30 August 2019. The project closed in 2014, see CORDIS EU research results https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/98125/factsheet/en. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  3. Anonymous (2015) GCHQ will circumvent encryption no matter what. Here’s how. http://www.wired.co.uk/article/how-spies-will-circumvent-encryption-anyway. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  4. Apple: privacy policy: https://www.apple.com/legal/privacy/en-ww/. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  5. Arthur C (2010) Why Minority Report was spot on. The Guardian, 16th June 2010. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2010/jun/16/minority-report-technology-comes-true. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  6. BBC News (2013) Newham Council wants to add to its 959 CCTV cameras. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-21822080. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  7. Berle I (2011) Privacy and confidentiality: what’s the difference? J Visual Commun 34(1):43–44 (March 2011) https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/17453054.2011.550845?journalCode=ijau20. Accessed 30 Aug 2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brey P (2004) Ethical aspects of facial recognition systems in public places. J Inf Commun Ethics Soc 2(2):97–109.  https://doi.org/10.1108/14779960480000246. Accessed 28 Aug 2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chesterman S (2011) One nation under surveillance: a new social contract to defend freedom without sacrificing liberty. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 244Google Scholar
  10. CIGI-Ipsos (2019) CIGI-Ipsos Global Survey on Internet Security and Trust. www.cigionline.org/internet-survey-2019. Accessed 30 Aug 2019. For comparison see also CIGI (The Centre for International Governance Innovation) and IPSOS ‘83% of Global Internet users believe affordable access to the Internet should be a basic Human Right’. November 24, 2014. https://www.cigionline.org/internet-survey-2014. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  11. Cognitec (2013) Face Recognition SDK Now Available for Android. http://www.cognitec.com/news-reader/product-release-7-2013.html. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  12. Collier K (2014) America’s top spy department: You need better encryption. Daily Dot, March 2014. https://www.salon.com/2014/03/06/u_s_intelligence_officials_nevermind_us_maybe_you_need_encryption_partner/. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  13. Data Protection Act 2018, §§43–45. https://services.parliament.uk/bills/2017-19/dataprotection.html. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  14. DHS Science and Technology Directorate. ‘Apex Air Entry and Exit Re-Engineering’ http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Apex%20Air%20Entry%20and%20Exit%20Re-Engineering-AEER-508_0.pdf. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  15. Dixon P (2010) The One-Way-Mirror-Society Privacy Implications of the new Digital Signage Networks. http://www.worldprivacyforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/onewaymirrorsocietyfs.pdf. Accessed 30 2019
  16. Dormehl L (2014) Facial recognition: is the technology taking away your identity? http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/may/04/facial-recognition-technology-identity-tesco-ethical-issues. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  17. Drivers and Vehicles Licensing Agency Release of information from DVLA’s registers, p 12. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/390088/Website-Release_of_information_from_DVLA__2_.pdf. Accessed 30 August 2019
  18. Eggen D (2005) Pre-9/11 Missteps by FBI Detailed. Washington Post. 10 June 2005. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/09/AR2005060902000.html. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  19. Ekman P (2006) How to Spot a Terrorist. October 29, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/27/AR2006102701478_2.html. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  20. Ekman P, Friesen WV (n.d.) Facial Action Coding System. https://www.paulekman.com/product-category/facs/. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  21. Emotional Intelligence Academy. https://www.eiagroup.com/. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  22. European Convention on Human Rights. https://echr.coe.int/Pages/home.aspx?p=basictexts&c=. Accessed 23 Sept 2019
  23. Foresight Future Identities (2013) Future identities –changing identities in the UK: the next 10 years. Final Project Report, Government Office for Science, London, p 10 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/273966/13-523-future-identities-changing-identities-report.pdf. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  24. GAO (2013) Aviation Security: TSA Should Limit Future Funding for Behavior Detection Activities. https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-159. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  25. Gates KA (2011) Our biometric future: facial recognition and the culture of surveillance. New York University Press, New York, p 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. GDPR. (General Data Protection Regulation) Article 17. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1528874672298&uri=CELEX%3A32016R0679. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  27. Home Office (2013) Surveillance Camera Code of Practice, June 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/282774/SurveillanceCameraCodePractice.pdf. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  28. Hughes K (2009) Photographs in public places and privacy. J Media Law 2:159–171, 163. http://stu.westga.edu/~cbailey4/databin/photos_public_privacy.pdf. Accessed 30 AugCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. ICO (2014) Information Commissioner’s Office. In the picture: A data protection code of practice for surveillance cameras and personal information Version 1, 15/10/2014. https://ico.org.uk/media/1542/cctv-code-of-practice.pdf. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  30. ICO (n.d.) Data Sharing Checklist. https://ico.org.uk/media/for-organisations/documents/1067/data_sharing_checklists.pdf. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  31. Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament (ISCP 2015) Privacy & Security: A modern & transparent legal framework. http://isc.independent.gov.uk/news-archive/12march2015. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  32. Internet World Stats (2019). http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  33. Key Lemon ‘Oasis Face’. http://www.discoversdk.com/products/keylemon#/overview. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  34. Kindt EJ (2013) Privacy and data protection issues of biometric applications. Springer, Heidelberg, p 192 §347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Laurent O (2013) Protecting the right to photograph, or not to be photographed. The New York Times, April 23, 2013. http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/04/23/paris-city-of-rights/?_r=0. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  36. Logeais E, Schroeder J-B (1998) The French right of image: an Amiguous concept protecting the human persona. http://digitalcommons.lmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1366&context=elr. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  37. London Borough of Newham (2015) Responding to a Freedom of Information request (FOI/E22073) “The London Borough of Newham does not use face recognition technology. It is understood there was a short trial of face recognition cameras in the borough many years ago, but we no longer hold any recorded historical information on this”. Received 16th March 2015Google Scholar
  38. Loukaidēs L (1995) Essays on the developing law of human rights (international studies in human rights). Martinus Nijhoff PublishersGoogle Scholar
  39. Lupker and others v. The Netherlands, 18395/91, 07/12/1992. http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-1433. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  40. Lyon D (2008) (1st published 2003) Surveillance after September 11. Polity Press, Cambridge, p 8Google Scholar
  41. Mohammed Atta, image available online from Getty Images: https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/license/51093486. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  42. MRS Reports (2015) Private lives? Putting the consumer at the heart of the privacy debate. https://www.mrs.org.uk/pdf/private%20lives.pdf. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  43. Obama B (2014) Remarks by the president on review of signals intelligence. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/01/17/remarks-president-review-signals-intelligence. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  44. Parliamentary Office for Science and Technology (2002) ‘CCTV 2002 Number 175’ http://www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/POST-PN-175.pdf. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  45. Paul M, Haque SME, Chakraborty S (2013) Human detection in surveillance videos and its applications - a review. EURASIP J Adv Signal Proc 176:12–13.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-6180-2013-176. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  46. Reklos and Davourlis v. Greece 1234/05, [2009] ECHR 200, 27 BHRC 420, [2009] EMLR 16. Council of Europe/European Court of Human Rights – Conseil de l’Europe/Cour européenne des droits de l’homme. http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-90617. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  47. Samuelson P (1999) Property as intellectual property. Stanf Law Rev pp 1126–1173 52 Stan. L. Rev. 1125, p 1146–1151. https://works.bepress.com/pamela_samuelson/. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  48. Sciacca v. Italy (2006) 43 EHRR 400 s29-30. Case summary available from: http://www.5rb.com/case/sciacca-v-italy/. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  49. Solove DJ (2011) Nothing to hide: the false trade off between privacy and security. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  50. Soper T (2017) Goodbye, Kinect: Microsoft stops manufacturing motion-sensing Xbox camera. https://www.geekwire.com/2017/goodbye-kinect-microsoft-stops-manufacturing-motion-sensing-xbox-camera/. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  51. Stikeman A (2001) Recognising the enemy. Technology Review, December 2001. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401300/recognizing-the-enemy/. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  52. Tagg J (1988) The burden of representation: essays on photographies and histories. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Trepp P (2019) Face recognition: the future of personal identity management. https://www.facefirst.com/blog/face-recognition-the-future-of-personal-identity-management/. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  54. UK Human Rights Act 1998. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/42/contents. Accessed 23 Sept 2019
  55. United States Title 18—Crimes and Criminal Procedure 18 USC §2721 Chapter 123 —Prohibition on release and use of certain personal information from state motor vehicle records. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2011-title18/pdf/USCODE-2011-title18-partI-chap123-sec2721.pdf; and https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/2721. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  56. University of California, Irvine (2011) Privacy vs. Confidentiality: What is the Difference? UCI Researchers (Summer) 2011. Listed as ‘privacy-confidentiality-hrp.pdf’. https://www.research.uci.edu/cascade/compliance/human-research-protections/docs/. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  57. University of California, San Diego (2007) Office of Innovation and Commercialisation. Automated Facial Action Coding System. http://techtransfer.universityofcalifornia.edu/NCD/22278.html. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  58. Van Zoonen L et al (2012) Scenarios of Identity Management in the Future Report. IMPRINTS (Public responses to Identity Management Practices & Technologies). Department of Social Sciences, University of Loughborough, Leicester UK. http://www.imprintsfutures.org/assets/images/pdfs/Scenarios_of_identity_management_in_the_future_Report.pdf. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  59. Vermeulen M (2014) European University Institute: SURVEILLE. Surveillance: Ethical Issues, Legal Limitations, and Efficiency. https://surveille.eui.eu/wp-content/uploads/sites/19/2015/04/D4.7-The-scope-of-the- right-to-privacy-in-public-places.pdf. Accessed 30 Aug 2019
  60. Visionics Corporation, ‘FaceIt® will Enhance & Compliment your CCTV Surveillance System’ http://valy.1ka.eu/ruzne/tash/tash.gn.apc.org/Visionics_Tech2.pdf. Accessed 28 Aug 2019
  61. Weiming H, Tieniu T, Liang W, Maybank S (2004) A survey on visual surveillance of object motion and behaviors. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Part C Appl Rev 34(3). https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1310448. Accessed 28 Aug 2019

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Berle
    • 1
  1. 1.SuttonUK

Personalised recommendations