• Ian Berle
Part of the Law, Governance and Technology Series book series (LGTS, volume 41)


The emergence of digital photography in the 1980s and the invention of Adobe PhotoShop© in 1987 revolutionised photography and subsequently enabled the informatisation of the body. Without digital photography, imaging dependent biometrics would not be possible because the sensors that have replaced film quantify physical components of bodies in the process of informatisation, that film and its analogue processes cannot accomplish. Ultimately quantification converts what can be seen into data and completes the cycle of informatisation. When bodies are informatised, face recognition, irises and fingerprint biometrics are obtainable and regularly used for border control, surveillance and personal access applications. This chapter therefore, briefly describes how Face Recognition Technology (FRT) is founded on digital photography, and reviews how FRT has impacted privacy and confidentiality. The ethical and legal implications of FRT, and how personal autonomy in terms of consent and choice are also considered.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Berle
    • 1
  1. 1.SuttonUK

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