Thermally Annealed in Vacuum Undoped and Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films for Multifunctional Applications

  • Ion Lungu
  • Tamara PotlogEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS, volume 101)


Undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis in oxygen and argon atmospheres. The structural properties of ZnO thin films were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. The electrical resistivity and Hall mobility were measured using the van der Pauw technique at room temperature. AFM studies show that the ambient atmosphere influences the roughness parameters of the ZnO surfaces. The XRD results revealed that undoped and Al-doped ZnO films are polycrystalline and developed [0002] preferred orientation. The best electrical parameters (conductivity, mobility carriers and carrier concentration) are obtained for 1.0 at % of Al-doped ZnO synthetized in Ar atmosphere. In all cases, the electrical parameters under Ar are higher than under O2 atmosphere, unless they are not doped. Different applications of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films are discussed.


Undoped and Al-doped ZnO Spray pyrolysis Surface properties Optical and electrical properties Photoluminescence 



The authors thank the Ministry of Education, Culture and Research of Republic of Moldova for funding the grant 15.817.02.39A. In addition, a part of this research is supported by Research Center for Biomedical Engineering through Cooperative Project, RIE, Japan. Authors also thank Vasile Botnariuc, Moldova State University for supplying InP/CdS solar cells and Mr. Miyake Taku, Graduate School of Integrated Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, for taking AFM images.


  1. 1.
    Tadatsugu, M., Hidehito, N., Shinzo, T.: Highly conductive and transparent aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. Japanese J Appl Phys 23(5), 2 (1984)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Manifacier, J.C., Szepessy, L., Bresse, J.F., Perotin, M., Stuck, R.: In2O3: (Sn) and SnO2: (F) films - application to solar energy conversion part II—Electrical and optical properties. Mater. Res. Bull. 14(2), 163–175 (1979)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhilova, O.V., Pankov, S.Yu., Sitnikov, A.V., Kalinin, Yu.E., Volochaev, M.N., Makagonov, V.A.: Structure and electrophysical properties of thin-film SnO2–In2O3 heterostructure. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 30(13), 11859–1186 (2019)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vasco, E., Rubio-Zuazo, J., Va´zquez, L., Prieto, C., Zaldo, C.: Submicron structure and acoustic properties of ZnO films deposited on (100) InP by pulsed laser deposition. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(1), 224–229 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rosa, A.M., da Silva, E.P., Amorim, E., Chave, M., Catto, A.C., Lisboa-Filho, P.N., Bortoleto, J. R.: Growth evolution of ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 370 012020 (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fang, Z., Wang, Y., Peng, X., Liu, X., Zhen, C.: Structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown on the AAO templates. Mater. Lett. 57(26–27), 4187–4190 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mingsong, W., Lingxia, J.: Eui Jung Kim and Sung Hong Hahn,: Electronic structure and optical properties of Zn(OH)2: LDA + U calculations and intense yellow luminescence. RSC Adv. 5, 87496–87503 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Qu, X.-R., Jia, D.-C.: Synthesis of octahedral ZnO mesoscale superstructures via thermal decomposing octahedral zinc hydroxide precursors. J. Cryst. Growth 311, 1223–1228 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shaporev, A.S., Ivanov, V.K., Baranchikov, A.E., Polezhaeva, O.S., Tretyakov, Y.D.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 52, 1811–1816 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mukhopadhyay, S., Das, P.P., Maity, S., Ghosh, P., Devi, P.S.: Solution grown ZnO rods: Synthesis, characterization and defect mediated photocatalytic activity. Appl. Catal. B 165, 128–138 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Uekawa, N., Iahii, S., Kojima, T., Kakegawa, K.: Synthesis of ZnO sols by low-temperature heating of ethylene glycol solution and control of their photoluminescence with addition of glucose. Mater. Lett. 61, 1729–1734 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jeong, S.H., Park, B.N., Lee, S.B., Boo, J.H.: Metal-doped ZnO thin films, synthesis and characterisations. Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 5318–5322 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Norton, D.P., Heo, Y.W., Ivill, M.P., et al.: ZnO: growth, doping & processing. Mater. Today 7(6), 34–40 (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Illiberi, A., Kniknie, B., van Deelen, J. et al.: Industrial high-rate (∼14 nm/s) deposition of low resistive and transparent ZnOx:Al flms on glass. Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 95(7), 1955–1959 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Belghit, K., Subhan, M.A, Rulhe, U., Duchemin, S., Bougnot: Sprayed ZnO thin Films as optical window in CuInSe2 based solar cells. J. Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. (1991)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Godavarti, U., Mote, V.D., Dasari, M.: Role of cobalt doping on the electrical conductivity of ZnO nanoparticles. J. Asian Ceram. Soc. 5(4), 391–39 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chant, E., Wongratanaphisan, D., Gardchareon, A., et al.: Effect of ZnO double layer as anti-reflection coating layer in ZnO Dye-Sensitized. Solar Cells Energy Proced. 79(November), 879–884 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Simaşchevici, A., Şerban, D., Bruc, L., Coval, A., Gorceac, L., Monaico, E., Usatîi, Iu.: Int. Sci. J. Altern. Energy Ecology ISJAEEET2, 3451–54 (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Potlog, T., Botnariuc, V., Gorceac, L., Spalatu, N., Maticiuc, N., Raievschi, S.: The caracterization of the CdS-based solar cell heterojunctions. In: The Proceedings of the International Semiconductor Conference, 11–13 October, Sinaia, Romania, Vol. 01, pp. 105–108 (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mead, C.A.: Surface barriers on ZnSe and ZnO. Phys. Lett. 18, 218 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Larsen, J.K. et al.: Interference effects in photoluminescence spectra of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 118, 035307-1- 035307-9 (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics Department and EngineeringMoldova State UniversityChisinauMoldova

Personalised recommendations