Photon-Coupled, Two-State Photoswitchable Protein-Based Multiple-Valued Logic

  • Balázs RakosEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS, volume 101)


Multi-valued logic can be applied in several areas, like robotics and artificial intelligence. It is utilized in various commercial applications, such as the StrataFlash, a NOR flash memory developed by Intel. Contemporary research focuses on the development of fast, nanometer-size, low power consuming electronic devices, therefore it is imperative to examine such concepts in the field of multiple-valued logic. We present a method by which simple, two-state, photon-coupled photoswitchable proteins can be utilized for multiple-valued computations. Its advantages are discussed, and an example, the ternary OR gate, using readily available fluorescent reversibly photoswitchable proteins is provided.


Multiple-valued logic Molecular electronics Photoswitchable proteins Logic circuits Nanoelectronics 


  1. 1.
    Hayes, B.: Third base. Am. Scientist 89, 490–494 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yoeli, M., Rosenfeld, G.: Logical design of ternary switching circuits. IEEE Trans. Electron. Comput. EC-14(1), 19–29 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Current, K.W.: Current-mode CMOS multiple valued logic circuits. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 29(2), 95–107 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dubrova, E.: Multiple-Valued Logic Synthesis and Optimization. The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 654, pp. 89–114 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Prasanna de Silva, A., James, M.R., McKinney, B.O.F., Pears, D.A., Weir, S.M.: Molecular computational elements encode large populations of small objects. Nat. Mater. 5, 787–789 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    de Silva, A.P., Uchiyama, S.: Molecular logic and computing. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 399–410 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li, E.Y., Marzari, N.: Conductance switching and many-valued logic in porphyrin assemblies. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(18), 3039–3044 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Callan, J.F., de Silva, A.P., Ferguson, J., Huxley, A.J.M., O’Brien, A.M.: Fluorescent photoionic devices with two receptors and two switching mechanisms: applications to pH sensors and implications for metal ion detection. Tetrahedron 60, 11125–11131 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rakos, B.: Simulation of Coulomb-coupled, protein-based logic. J. Autom. Mobile Robot. Intell. Syst. 3(4), 46–48 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rakos, B.: Coulomb-coupled, protein-based computing arrays. Adv. Mater. Res. 222, 181–184 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rakos, B.: Modeling of dipole-dipole-coupled, electric field-driven, protein-based computing architectures. Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl. 43, 60–72 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rakos, B.: Pulse-driven, photon-coupled, protein-based logic circuits. Adv. Intell. Syst. Comput. 519, 123–127 (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rakos, B.: Photon-coupled, photoswitchable protein-based OR, NOR logic gates. Adv. Intell. Syst. Comput. 660, 99–103 (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rakos, B.: Multiple-valued computing by photon-coupled, photoswitchable proteins. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol. 53, pp. 131–136 (2018)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rakos, B.: Multiple-valued computing by dipole-dipole coupled proteins. Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl. 47(8), 1357–1369 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bourgeois, D., Adam, V.: Reversible photoswitching in fluorescent proteins: a mechanistic view. IUBMB Life 64(6), 482–491 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Humphrey, W., Dalke, A., Schulten, K.: VMD-visual molecular dynamics. J. Molec. Graph. 14(1), 33–38 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Xu, D., Phillips, J.C., Schulten, K.: Protein response to external electric fields: relaxation, hysteresis, and echo. J. Phys. Chem. 100, 12108–12121 (1996). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Automation and Applied InformaticsBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations