Economic Metals Rescue from Spent ZincCarbon Batteries for Industrial Value Additions

  • Alafara A. BabaEmail author
  • Folahan A. Adekola
  • Rafiu B. Bale
  • Abdul G. F. Alabi
  • Mustapha A. Raji
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


The increasing demands for metals with gradual depletion of un-renewable resources warrant the need for industrial metals recovery from secondary sources including zinc–carbon batteries. The recycling from wastes is important as cost of safe disposal of its hazardous components is quite high compared to the amount of waste produced-cum-limited storage capacity. For instance, sub-Sahara African countries’ including Nigeria has been found to have dominance of non-rechargeable spent batteries containing precious metals content. These metals which may be toxic are valuable industrial elements if re-processed. In this work, combinations of acid leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation techniques were utilized in processing spent Tiger Head Zinc–carbon batteries assaying majorly 41.30 wt% ZnO, 4.30 wt% Fe2O3 and 2.69 wt% MnO2. At optimal conditions, the leach liquor was selectively treated to achieve 96.7% zinc recovery efficiency by Cyanex®272 extractant prior to its beneficiation as zinc oxide suitable as coating and industrial raw materials for some defined industries.


Zinc–carbon batteries Nigeria Zinc oxide Leaching Solvent extraction 



The authors wish to thank Dr. Oliver Rouher and Mrs. Christine Salomon of Cytec Industries, Rungis Cedex, France, for their benevolence in supplying the Cyanex®272 extractant used for this investigation.

One of the authors (Prof. Alafara Abdullahi Baba, FCSN, FMSN) sincerely thanks the Director Training, Mining Cadastral Office, Abuja–Nigeria; KAM Industries (Nig.) Ltd., Ilorin, Kwara State: One of the leading indigenous Steel Industries in Nigeria; Saolad Nig. Ltd. (Building Materials Merchants), Palm Avenue, Mushin, Lagos and S. S. Amao and Sons Limited (Importer and Exporters of Motor Spare parts and facilities), Ijora, Lagos, Nigeria for their immeasurable support to attend the TMS 2020 149th Annual Meeting and Exhibition in San Diego, California, USA, February 23–27, 2020.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alafara A. Baba
    • 1
    Email author
  • Folahan A. Adekola
    • 1
  • Rafiu B. Bale
    • 2
  • Abdul G. F. Alabi
    • 3
  • Mustapha A. Raji
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial ChemistryUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Geology and Mineral SciencesUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Material Science and EngineeringKwara State UniversityMaleteNigeria

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