Comprehensive Utilization of Vanadium Extraction Tailings: A Brief Review

  • Xin Wang
  • Junyi XiangEmail author
  • Jiawei Ling
  • Qingyun Huang
  • Xuewei Lv
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Vanadium extraction tailings are a kind of hazardous solid waste generated from the vanadium extraction process which using vanadium-bearing converter slag as raw materials. The comprehensive utilization of vanadium extraction tailings is becoming increasingly important due to the stricter environment regulations, cleaner production standards, and the shortage of valuable resources. Many advantages of comprehensive utilization of vanadium extraction tailings have been discovered, such as recover valuable metals, avoid waste of resources, increase economic benefits, reduce environmental pollution, and so on. Various comprehensive utilization of vanadium extraction tailings have been reviewed and compared, mainly focusing on the extraction of vanadium, iron, titanium, and gallium from vanadium extraction tailings and the preparation of titanium-iron black ceramic building materials, far-infrared coatings, converter slagging agents, and so on. The comprehensive condensation of pertinent facts is intended to provide a single reference source rather than the reader perusing many articles.


Vanadium extraction tailings Comprehensive utilization 



This work was supported by the Project funded by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (grant numbers 2018M640898), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1900501), and the open project founded by State Key Laboratory of Vanadium and Titanium Resources Comprehensive Utilization.


  1. 1.
    Xu CG, Wang HL, Yang H, Bai FR (2018) Conprehensive utilization of extracting vanadium talings. Ferroalloys 1:41–43Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li LJ, Zhao BB, Wang HX, Bai RG, Chen DH (2017) The process of high efficiency dealkalization and ore blending in iron making of the extracted vanadium residue. Chin J Process Eng 17(1):138–143Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang MC, Huang B, Pu NW, Zhang ZY (2013) Study on comprehensive utilization of vanadium extraction tailings. Paper presented at the second vanadium industry advanced technology exchange meeting, Kunming, China, 72–75 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deng ZG, Wei C, Li XB, Xu HS, Li MR, Li CX, Fan G (2012) Leaching vanadium from extracted vanadium residue of vanadium titanomagnetite. Chin J Nonferrous Met 22(6):1770–1777Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hao JZ, Liu AQ (2009) Utilization of wastes produced in the production process of vanadium. China Resour Compr Utilization 27(10):7–9Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ge HW, Wei C, Fan G, Li MT, Deng ZG, Li CX (2008) Pathbreaking experimentation study of a new leaching technology of extracted vanadium residue by acid leaching under oxygen pressure. Shangxi Metall 6:17–19Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li LJ, Chen DH, Bai RG, Zheng SL, Hao DU, Wang SN, Zhang Y (2011) Leaching of vanadium from vanadium-containing residue by NaOH sub-molten salt. Chin J Process Eng 11(5):747–754Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen DX (1990) Production of vanadium bearing pigiron from extracted vanadium resiue. Ferroalloy 2:40–42Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sui YL, Guo YF, Travyanov AY, Jiang T, Chen F, Qiu GZ (2016) Reduction roasting-magnetic separation of vanadium tailings in presence of sodium sulfate and its mechanisms. Rare Met 35(12):954–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tang HJ, Zhang L, Sun CH, Xian Y, Yu B (2015) Modification of extracted vanadium tailings at high temperature. Iron Steel Vanadium Titanium 36(3):41–44Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fan G, Wei C, Ge HW, Li MT, Deng ZG, Li CX (2010) Vanadium recovery from extracted vanadium residue by atmospheric pressure acid leaching. Nonferrous Met 62(4):65–68Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang H, Jing L, Zhang B (2011) Recovery of iron from vanadium tailings with coal-based direct reduction followed by magnetic separation. J Hazard Mater 185(2):1405–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    He LF (1994) Extraction of V2O5 from stone coal. Inorg Salt Ind 6:39–40Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huang Y, Jia X, Liu H (2016) Effect of hydrochloric acid on vanadium extraction from vanadium residue. Technol Wind 16:127Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang Q, Jiang MF, Wang M, Zhang J (2016) Leaching and extraction of vanadium and chromium feom vanadium tailings. Rare Met 9:13–16Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen DH (1993) Study on vanadium extraction from vanadium waste residue. Inorg Salt Ind 4:28–32Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hou J, Wu WH, Li J (2017) Current situation and progress of comprehensive utilization of vanadium extraction tailings. Conserv Utilization Min Resour 6:103–108Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xu JH, Cao SL (2005) Hollow solar panels made of vanadium titanium black porcelain. Shandong Ceram 28(4):44–45Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xiu DP, Wang QC, Yang YG, Gu SL, Sun QZ (2008) Techniques of making vanadium and titanium black porcelain and its application in modern industry. China Ceram 44(4):41–43Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yang SL, Ma L, Liu JF, Lei ZJ (2016) Prospect of researching and developing vanadium functional materials using vanadium resources in panxi area. Iron Steel Vanadium Titanium 2:84–91Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu CJ, Shi PY, Zhang DY, Jiang MF (2007) Development of glass ceramics made from ferrous tailings and slag in china. J Iron Steel Res 14(2):73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang Y, Wang Q, Xiu D, Zhao Z, Sun Q (2013) A building integrated solar collector: all-ceramic solar collector. Energy Build 62(7):15–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yang YG, Xu JH, Cai B, Wang QC, Xiu DP, Zhao ZB, Sun QZ, Cao SL (2013) Synthesis and applications of black ceramic from recycled industrial wastes. Adv Appl Ceram 112(3):146–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hao JZ, Liu AQ, Ma ML (2009) Research of vanadium tailings based far-infrared radiation coatings. Paint Coat Ind 39(9):13–15Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bai FR, Liu FQ (1995) Discusssion on new process of reducing FeV using vanadium slag directly. Ferroalloys 1:30–33Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weng QQ, Zhang W (2011) Feasibility analysis of vanadium two tailings by the blast furnace digestion. Mutipurpose Util Miner Resour 33(6):59–61Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yu HH, Zhang HF, Li X (2015) Preparation of Fe2O3 from vanadium tailings by acid leaching. Nonferrous Min Metall 6:28–31Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jiao X, Zhang Y, Chen T (2013) Thermal stability of a silica-rich vanadium tailing based geopolymer. Constr Build Mater 38(38):43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Li H, Zhou RZ (1993) Chloridizing volatilization of Ga during sodiumination roasting of V-slag carbon addition. Iron Steel Vanadium Titanium 4:51–57Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen SF (1994) Extraction of metallic gallium from vanadium residue disposed in panzhilua iron steel. Iron Steel Vanadium Titanium 15(1):49–52Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guo HJ, Li J, Zhou RZ, Lin ZC, Zhao YX (1993) Extracting Ga from V-containing slag chloridizing roasting. Iron Steel Vanadium Titanium 4:58–66Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li H, Li JH (1993) Experimental study on leaching gallium from vanadium slag containing gallium. Iron Steel Vanadium Titanium 14(4):22–27Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Wang
    • 1
  • Junyi Xiang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jiawei Ling
    • 1
  • Qingyun Huang
    • 2
  • Xuewei Lv
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.College of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and TechnologyChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations