Advertisement

Extraction and Processing of Crystalline Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Prepared from Rice Husk Byproduct

  • C. Iyen
  • B. O. AyomanorEmail author
  • V. Mbah
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

Rice husk, an agricultural waste product, could yield valuable silica under controlled temperature and time, and possesses one of the natural polymorphs of silica. Its low production cost makes it most viable for preparing metallurgical-grade silicon of high purity needed for solar cell technology. In this work, high purity metallurgical-grade silicon (MG-Si) ~98.6% has been prepared from rice husk ash (RHA) by solid-liquid extraction (acid leaching). The RHA silica was leached using HNO3 and HCl solutions. The acid-leached rice husk was filtered, washed, dried, and calcined at 1000 °C for 5 h. Further purification was achieved by pulverizing and thoroughly mixing the silica with magnesium powder at a ratio of 1.0 g SiO2 to 0.8 g Mg and annealing at 1100 °C to form magnesium silicide. The material produced was characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron Microscopy, Thermogravimetry, and Raman. Elemental analysis using XRF showed the percentage of silicon in the produced material to be 98%, major impurities found are Mg (0.96%), Ca (0.08%), Fe (0.2%), K (0.26%), and Al (0.39%). XRD analysis detected only crystalline Si. Further analysis using Raman spectroscopy showed a clear polycrystalline Si line at 516.6 cm−1.

Keywords

Rice husk ash Anneal Metallothermal Leaching 

References

  1. 1.
    Swanson RM (2006) A vision for crystalline silicon photovoltaics. Prog Photovoltaics Res Appl 14:443–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chauhan S (2010) Biomass resources assessment for power generation: a case study from Haryana State, India. Biomass Bioenergy 34:1300–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    http://www.fao.org/economic/RMM FAO Rice market Monitor, vol xvii, issue No. 3 (2014)
  4. 4.
    Kapur T, Kandpal TC, Garg HP (1996) Electrical generation from rice husk in indian rice mills: potential and financial viability. Biomass Bioenergy 10:393–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Govindarao VMH (1980) Utilization of rice husk: a preliminary analysis. J Sci Ind Res 39(9):495–515Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Larbi KK, Roy R, Barati M, Lakshmanan VI, Sridhar R, Mclean A (2012) Use of rice husk for emission neutral energy generation and synthesis of solar-grade silicon feedstock. Biomass Conv Biorefinery 2:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Agrawal BM (1989) Utilization of rice husk ash. Glass Ceram Bull 36:1–2Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Faroogue KN, Zaman M, Halim E, Islam S, Hossain M, Mollah YA, Mahmood AJ (2009) Characterization and utilization of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) from rice Mill of Bangladish. Bangladish J Sci Ind Res 44(2):157 162Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nakata Y, Suzuki M, Okutani T, Kikuchi M, Akiyama T (1989) Preparation and properties of SiO2 from rice hulls. J Ceram Soc Jpn 97:842–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Real C, Alcala MC, Criado JM (1996) Preparation of silica from rice husks. J Am Ceram Soc 79:2012–2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hara N (1988) Utilization of rice husk ash for calcium silicate lightweight building materials. J Miner Soc Jan 18:405–415Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    IARC (1993) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans 58:41–61Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zemnukhova L, Egorov A, Fedorishcheva G, Barinov N, Sokol’nitskaya T, Botsul A (2006) Properties of amorphous silica produced from rice and oak processing waste. Inorg Mater 42:24–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Banerjee HD, Sen S, Acharya HN (1982) Investigation on the production of silicon from rice husks by the magnesium methed. J Mater Sci Eng 52:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bose DN, Govindacharyulu PA (1984) Progress in solar-grade silicon from rice husk ash. Pergamonpress, Perth, pp 2735–2781Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ikram N, Akhter M (1988) X-ray diffraction analysis of silicon prepared from rice husk ash. J Mater Sci 23:2379–2381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang MH, Malhotra VM (1996) High performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash as a supplementary cementing material. J ACI Mat 93(6):629–636Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Campbell IH, Fauchet PM (1986) The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors. Solid State Commun 58(10):739–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Iqbal Z, Vepřek S, Webb AP, Capezzuto P (1981) Raman scattering from small particle size polycrystalline silicon. Solid State Commun 37(12):993–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Doe U (2012) Sunshot vision study. US DOE, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Feldman D, Barbose G, Margolis R, Darghouth N, James T, Weaver S, Goodrich A, Carolyn D, Sam B, Wiser R (2014) Photovoltaic system pricing trends: historical, recent, and near-term projections. 2014 Edition. NREL/PR-6A20-62558. NREL, Golden, COGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pizzini S (2012) Advanced silicon materials for photovoltaic applications. Wiley, pp 311–353Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pure and Applied PhysicsFederal University WukariWukariNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Science Laboratory TechnologyFederal Polytechnic NasarawaNasarawaNigeria

Personalised recommendations